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Fashion under Socialism

Djurdja Bartlett

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The relationship between dress and Socialism started in Soviet Russia following the 1917 Communist Revolution. When Soviet-style Socialism was introduced in East Europe in 1948, dress became an important ideological and practical issue in the countries under Soviet political control. However, the styles of garments, and the discourses in which they were embedded, were not homogeneous in the Soviet Union and the East European countries during the seventy-two years of Communist rule. Both similarit

Regional Differences in Dress and Fashion

Nancy O. Bryant

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. The United States and Canada 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Fashion professionals believe that there are regional differences in dress and fashion trends in the United States and Canada. However, objective data are hard to find, as scholars have paid little attention to regional differences within these territories. National retail firms are likely to evaluate sales in different regions in order to provide a range of stock that will appeal to their customers. Trade publications report the sales volume of items in various regions. Fashion reporters use the

Greenland

Cunera Buijs

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The extremes of the Arctic climate set Greenland dress apart from dress in the rest of West Europe. It is made from the skins and furs of animals and birds and is highly adapted to the conditions and lifestyle of the Arctic people. Even so there are distinctive regional dress cultures of the West Greenlanders (Kilaamiut), Northwest Greenlanders (Inughuit), and East Greenlanders (Tunumiit). It was only in the twentieth century that the dress of Greenlanders began to be influenced by dress in the r

Antarctic Explorer Wear

Natalie Cadenhead

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Clothing worn in the Ross Sea region of Antarctica demonstrates important design changes developed to assist wearers with extreme weather conditions. Antarctic clothing history is split into two main eras: the heroic era from 1840 to 1917 and the scientific era from 1940 to the twenty-first century. Exploration that occurred between these eras was mainly sea-based for commercial reasons (sealing and whaling) and did not affect clothing design in any major way. At the beginning of the heroic era o

Rural Dress in Australia

Jennifer Craik

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands 2010

Encyclopedia entry

A distinctive Australian sense of dress for Europeans is often considered to be bush wear, that is, clothes that have become synonymous with rural life and the outback. The typical elements of this rural dress include moleskin trousers, elastic-sided boots, cotton or wool shirt, bush jacket (in denim, wool, or leather) or waterproof oilskin coat, and a wide-brimmed felt hat. These garments are typically worn by men, so particular traits of masculinity are woven into the image of Australian bush w

The Concept of National Dress in the Nordic Countries

Bjørn Sverre Hol Haugen

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

In parts of West Europe, folk dress traditions developed in preindustrial rural societies, replaced by newer styles centuries ago; elsewhere, folk dress was worn daily until almost the twenty-first century. Among the northern Sámi people, and in Greenland, the last traces of folk dress are still in daily use. The defining factor of folk dress is its local character, whereas national dress is not part of daily life in local societies. Where folk dress is still worn, it is by older generations, wit

Historical Survey of Textiles and Dress in Turkey

Charlotte Jirousek

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Central and Southwest Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The Turkic people have a long and far-reaching history that originates in Central Asia, where ethnic Turks are still found. Turkic people in the early twenty-first century reside across the length of Asia, from northwestern China to the Balkans. The term Turkic refers to the general ethnolinguistic group that includes existing societies such as the Kazakhs, Uzbeks, Kyrgyz, Tatar, Uighurs, Azerbaijani, Turkmen, and Turkish people. It also includes past civilizations such as the Xiongnu, Cumans, Av

Colonial Influence on Dress in the Indian Subcontinent

Donald Clay Johnson

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. South Asia and Southeast Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Queen Elizabeth I issued a royal charter to the Company of Merchants of London Trading into the East Indies (commonly known as the East India Company) on the last day of 1600. Thus began the official interactions between England and India, which two centuries later resulted in British political domination of the Indian Subcontinent. What the British wore in India overwhelmingly reflected London fashion rather than incorporating approaches to clothing that had evolved over millennia in India. This

Urban Menswear in Australia

Vicki Karaminas

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Australia was relatively sparsely populated with Europeans until the discovery of gold in 1851. Immigration, together with increased urbanization and industrialization, led to growing prosperity for its colonies. A new class of professional city men, civil servants and entrepreneurs, emerged. While the governing class had always looked to Britain for their styles of fashionable dress, men abandoned the diversity of everyday town dress in the early colonies and began to conform to European standar

Aboriginal Dress in North Queensland, Australia

Kate Khan

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Although there had been occasional contact between Europeans and Aboriginal people in north Queensland since 1606, by the 1860s the increasing influx of Europeans and Chinese occupying Aboriginal lands made conflict inevitable. Until the 1870s tribal groups living in the rain forest region of Cape York Peninsula, north Queensland, escaped the upheavals of foreign contact and continued to lead the life of successful hunter-gatherers in this rich natural environment. Many items were unique to the r

Sámi

Desiree Koslin

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Sápmi, the Subarctic region of North Europe and West Russia, is home to the Sámi people, estimated to be a population of about seventy-five thousand to eighty-five thousand in the early twenty-first century. Distinctive dress is an important marker of Sámi identity. Traditional Sámi dress shares many features with other Arctic and Subarctic peoples. Garments and footwear were made from the furs, skins, sinews, and organs of mammals, birds, and fish. Current Sámi festive dress is a source of pride

Dress, Undress, Clothing, and Nudity

Frederick John Lamp

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Global Perspectives 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The concepts of nudity and dress are burdened with implicit moral and cultural connotations as well as the subjectivity of the viewer. As a binary conception applied to the tropical non-Western world by European observers, nudity is entangled in a multitude of ideas about the self and the other, often pejorative to a greater or lesser extent, and inherently misconceived. A more accurate Western understanding of non-Western dress and nudity must take into account the existing and historical Wester

Trade, Textiles, and Dress in Central and Southwest Asia

Abby Lillethun

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Central and Southwest Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Textiles and dress provide invaluable opportunities for insight into the encounters of lifestyles with infrastructures of trade and exchange. Textiles and dress in Central and Southwest Asia cover a long historical arc, from the earliest known archaeological textile finds to the twenty-first century.

Geographical and Geopolitical Introduction

Margaret Maynard

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The Pacific region covers a vast geographic area. From the continent of Australia it reaches its southernmost point at Antarctica, while to the north it extends to the shores of Asia, and to the west, the Americas. It includes all the island groups of Micronesia, Polynesia, and Melanesia. The first inhabitants arrived between forty thousand and sixty thousand years ago and populated Australia and New Guinea with successive waves of Austronesians, settling island after island. The Māori were among

Geography and Climate: Southeast Europe

Liz Mellish

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Southeast Europe is predominantly mountainous, with steep valleys and flat plains; in the early twenty-first century it is occupied by Greece, Albania, Macedonia, Kosovo, Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Slovenia, Romania, Moldova, and Bulgaria. The geography here has always strongly influenced dress. Areas near trade routes had greater access to raw materials. The climate varies from continental in the inland and more northern areas to Mediterranean in coastal areas and south

The Arctic

Birgit Pauksztat

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. The United States and Canada 2010

Encyclopedia entry

In an environment where temperatures are below freezing for much of the year, appropriate clothing is vital. For the native peoples of Arctic North America, until about the mid-twentieth century, survival largely depended on women’s skills to create clothing that provides insulation against the cold and protection from snow, ice, and water. At the same time, the garments are lightweight and durable, and their designs provide the freedom of movement required for carrying out everyday activities.

Climatic Zones and Cultural Regions

Philip W. Porter

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Africa 2010

Encyclopedia entry

It is difficult to regionalize something as complex as African modes of dress and adornment. Contributing features of dress may be influenced by climate, topography, culture, religion, as well as livelihood, including the raw materials readily at hand for garment-making. Africa, extends north-south over 72 degrees of latitude and east-west over 69 degrees of longitude, thus encompassing a wide range of climates of the tropics, subtropics and mid-latitudes. In Africa, folk classifications of clima

The Geographic and Cultural Regions

Lise Skov

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Because there are no clear geographical borders between Europe and Asia, or East and West Europe, definitions of these regions have shifted historically. Divisions are essentially political, accentuated by profound changes following the end of the Cold War. Cultural diversity is a European characteristic, impacting significantly on dress and the fashion industry in the twentieth century. The clothing materials native to West Europe are wool, linen, fur, and leather. Until the Middle Ages all clot

Geography and Climate: East Central Europe, the Baltic Countries, Russia, and the Caucasus

Pamela Smith

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Central and East Europe extend from northern Germany to Russia’s Pacific coast. The expanse occupied today by Poland, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, Belarus, Ukraine, and Russia is punctuated only by the Ural Mountains. A wooded upland landscape covers the Czech Republic, rising eastward into the Carpathian Mountains. Much further east lie the Caucasus Mountains. For centuries the great plains offered easy access; evidence of Scythian dress has been found in southern Siberia, including shirts of Sib

The Subarctic

Judy Thompson

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. The United States and Canada 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Clothing was a fundamental and striking feature of the cultures of the Algonquian and Athapaskan peoples of the Subarctic region of North America when Europeans first encountered them in the sixteenth, seventeenth, and eighteenth centuries. Garments made from tanned animal hides afforded protection against a harsh northern environment; beautifully decorated with porcupine quillwork, fringes, and earth pigments, they also provided an important outlet for artistic expression, signified ethnic ident

The Geographic and Cultural Region

Phyllis G. Tortora

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. The United States and Canada 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The geography of the region occupied by any nation will be a major factor in the establishment of climate zones. The relationship between dress and climate is strong. Climate is directly related to raw materials available for constructing elements of dress. Dress can assist humans to adapt to climate and protect the body from hazardous materials in the environment. Dress includes anything that modifies or is added to the human body. Body modifications might include weight gain or loss, ornamentat

Climate, Geography, and Dress

Willem Vogelsang

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Central and Southwest Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Southwest and Central Asia are geographical terms that, taken together, refer to an immense extent of land, which stretches from the Bosphorus in the northwest to the Indus valley in the southeast. Its other extremes are Yemen in the southwest and Kazakhstan in the northeast. Middle East and Near East are the dated terms that have historically referred to parts within the west of the area. Historically, Southwest and Central Asia have been quite loosely defined. Islam is the dominant religion acr

Geographic and Cultural Introduction

John E. Vollmer

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The region of continental and insular East Asia and Inner Asia is vast in terms of both time and space. The recorded history of the region is measured in millennia, rather than centuries. Dress is widely diverse, as are the people who created it. Historically, Chinese civilization, which traces a continuous development over four millennia, has dominated the region and has influenced the attire and attitudes about dress of many of China’s neighboring states. Yet even Chinese dress is far from mono

Footwear in Australia

Lindie Ward

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Warm to hot summers, and preferences for the outdoor life, sport, and leisure have created a unique environment for the evolution of specific footwear made and used in Australia. Early Aborigines in the south Kimberley region wore shoes of felted emu feathers, yet going barefoot has been common at times for all Australians, although less so today. There was significant early demand for shoes for convicts and free settlers, which local tradespeople could not meet. As more affluent settlers arrived

Overview of South America

Lynn A. Meisch

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Latin America and the Caribbean 2005

Encyclopedia entry

South America is the most geographically diverse continent, extending from just north of the equator to Antarctica; these extremes markedly affect dress. Much of the Pacific coast and Andean highlands of contemporary Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, northern Argentina, and northern Chile constituted the Inka Empire at the time of the Spanish invasion. Many indigenous Andean groups still manufacture and wear dress they consider traditional, combining pre-Hispanic and European styles. The Spanish

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