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Dress of the Cook Islands

Kalissa Alexeyeff

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Cook Islands dress of the twenty-first century is a vibrant mixture of local, Western, and regional influences. Traces of the islands’ missionary and colonial history are also evident and reflect an ongoing incorporation of external styles and aesthetics. Since the Cook Islands gained independence in 1965, the revival of local dress practices of the past has been viewed as an important way of forging an independent nation-state. Traditional dress, primarily worn in performance contexts in the ear

Dress and Tourism

Derek Bryce

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Central and Southwest Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Tourism is an industry of increasing global significance. With international tourist arrivals forecast to exceed 1.5 billion by 2020, it is clear that catering to such vast temporary movements of people has significant impacts on host environments and cultures. In broad terms, this industry is systemically driven to commodify entire cultures in order to render them consumable by large numbers of potential tourists. Perhaps paradoxically, the supposed cultural novelty and exoticism of a destinatio

The Māori Pari (Bodice)

Jo Diamond

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The pari is a Māori bodice of the rāranga type, worn with a piupiu (a type of fibrous skirt) and Māori jewelry by women in cultural performances including competitions, concerts, and festivals. Rāranga is a generic naming for plaited (as opposed to loom) handweaving practices undertaken mostly, though not exclusively, by Māori women. Māori performances usually occur in order to promote traditional practices, but for some they include a more material reward or prize money or are part of fund-raisi

Ethnic (Folk) Dress in West Europe

Helen Bradley Foster

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

European nations embrace common notions about folk dress as a symbol of cultural identity. The exception is England, a country not credited with a tradition of folk dress. Although the populations of many countries on other continents likewise recognize their own traditions of national dress, none uses the term folk to define that dress. The term and the manner in which its meaning changes over time and place help locate historical ideas about West European ethnic (folk) dress within temporal and

French Travelers Writing on Russian Dress

Raisa Marduhovna Kirsanova

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Among many French travelers who described Russia’s native attire were artists, politicians, and historians. The most popular memoirs were those of Louis-Philippe de Ségur (1753–1830), French ambassador to Russia under Catherine the Great. The count stated that in Russia, “red” (krasniy) is equivalent to “beautiful” (krasiviy), because, observing the predominance of red in peasant festive dress, he perceived it as the color of national holidays. Court painter Vigée LeBrun (1755–1842), who emigrate

Sámi

Desiree Koslin

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Sápmi, the Subarctic region of North Europe and West Russia, is home to the Sámi people, estimated to be a population of about seventy-five thousand to eighty-five thousand in the early twenty-first century. Distinctive dress is an important marker of Sámi identity. Traditional Sámi dress shares many features with other Arctic and Subarctic peoples. Garments and footwear were made from the furs, skins, sinews, and organs of mammals, birds, and fish. Current Sámi festive dress is a source of pride

Edith Durham, Victorian Traveler and Dress Collector in the Balkans

Philippa Mackenzie

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus 2010

Encyclopedia entry

In 1900 Edith Durham followed medical advice to take an annual trip. She traveled to Montenegro, beginning an involvement with the Balkan peoples that lasted the rest of her life. In the next twenty years Durham traveled widely through areas broadly comprising the former Yugoslavia. She documents her early travels in her first book, Through the Lands of the Serb (1904). She was asked to undertake relief work in Macedonia in the winter of 1903–1904. The political situation was increasingly unstabl

Interpreting “Civilization” through Dress

Sandra Niessen

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Accepted wisdom holds that dress traditions reflect the full range of environmental factors—physical, cultural, and social—under which they are produced and worn. In this, West European dress is no different from any other clothing system found in the world. Historically, however, the dress of Western civilization has been accorded a special position that has only recently begun to be seriously questioned. At the same time, its primacy can scarcely be disputed, as it has been used as the model fo

Switzerland

Sigrid Pallmert

Translated by Kirsten Warner

Philipp Thüring

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

As a multicultural country, dress in Switzerland has been characterized by a cosmopolitan outlook and adoption of international influences. Bourgeois styles have been dominant, but at various times communities of radical thinkers and avant-garde artists have made their mark on Swiss dress styles. For the rural population, regional and ethnic dress has been very important, to the extent that Swiss folklore has had a considerable influence on the perception of Switzerland. This is true even in the

Serbia: Urban Dress, 1945 to Twenty-First Century

Maja Studen Petrovic

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus 2010

Encyclopedia entry

After the end of World War II in 1945, Serbia joined five other republics to form the Democratic Federal Yugoslavia, which received its last official name, the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, in 1963. The Communist takeover resulted in radical changes of the social system, because it was initially based on the Soviet model. The new age was also marked by cultural, educational, and scientific reorganization in line with Socialist standards, accompanied by propaganda clearly colored by id

Wales

Elen Phillips

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Wales, one of the United Kingdom’s four constituent nations, is located on the western shores of the British Isles. Agriculture accounts for 80 percent of its land use. Sheep have always been the mainstay of the Welsh rural economy. The principal rural industry in Wales for centuries was woolen manufacture. Although the industry declined steadily for much of the nineteenth century, small woolen mills were once a common sight in the Welsh countryside. Welsh flannel made ideal clothing for everyday

Wearable Art in New Zealand

Natalie Smith

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Historically, wearable art, or art-to-wear as it is known in North America, emerged out of the counterculture aesthetics of the 1960s. The term loosely referred to the customized surface design of dress, using various techniques including embroidery, beadwork, and painting, as a statement against mass-produced dress. In addition to this personal imagery, symbols appropriated from Eastern religions provided a popular visual resource. New Zealand Wearable Art, on the other hand, is the outcome of a

The Indigenous Hunter-Gatherers of Sri Lanka, the Wanniyala-Aetto

Wiveca Stegeborn

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. South Asia and Southeast Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Prehistoric fossae and artifacts show that 34,000 years ago ± 5,000, groups of Palaeolithic people, plausibly descendants of Homo erectus found in southern India, repeatedly migrated over Adam’s Bridge, a strip of land connecting India with Sri Lanka during glacial periods. The hominids brought with them an Acheulean stone-tool technique, along with flora and fauna. They were unclad, and no traces have been found of hides, straw, soft bark, or other perishable goods that could have been used as c

History of Dress and Fashion

Willem Vogelsang

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Central and Southwest Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

People have been living in Central and Southwest Asia for many thousands of years. Some groups developed complex social communities based on farming, cooperation, and international trade; other groups relied on hunting and following animals to support their way of life. Throughout the vast area that stretches from the eastern Mediterranean to the deserts of Central Asia, many civilizations have grown, flourished, and then vanished. Some have left many traces, while others are known just from a ha

The Portrayal of Balkan Dress in Western Travel Books

Antonia Young

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Only a few Western travelers have focused specifically on the dress they encountered, and travel books generally devote a very small proportion of their texts and illustrations to clothes or national dress, often observing simply that they were “picturesque” or “colorful.” Most include at least one photograph of a woman in national dress, but without precise information. Many travel writers focused more on architecture, although this can include early dress depicted in frescoes, paintings, and th

Venice and the Dress of Foreigners

Stella Mary Newton

Source: Classic and Modern Writings on Fashion 2nd Edition 2009

Book chapter

“Why Do Gringos Like Black?” Mourning, Tourism and Changing Fashions in Peru

Blenda Femenías

Source: The Latin American Fashion Reader 2005

Book chapter

One April afternoon, Nilda Bernal took an order for a black vest from my friend. While Patricia Jurewicz and I were riding the bus from Arequipa to the Colca Valley for Semana Santa (Holy Week) of 1992, we had discussed buying embroideries. A textile designer from the United States then living in Peru, Jurewicz was intrigued by bordados, the distinctive Colca-style embroidered clothes.My writings about Peruvian dress, especially Colca bordados, include Femenías 1996, 1997, 2001, 2004, and n.d. To

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