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Missionary Dress in Samoa

Prue Ahrens

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The first European Christian missionaries to establish a station in the South Pacific were members of the London Missionary Society (LMS) who arrived in Tahiti in 1797. Over the next one hundred years a number of European Christian denominations established missions there. For example, mission stations were established in Tonga by Wesleyans (1826) and Marists (1832), and in the Gilberts and Ellice Islands (now Kiribati and Tuvalu) by the LMS (1877) and the Catholic Sacred Heart Mission (1881). In

Aboriginal Dress in the Kimberley, Western Australia

Kim Akerman

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands 2010

Encyclopedia entry

As in most other areas of Australia, the Aboriginals of the Kimberley were traditionally unclothed. For them, dress consisted of headbands and hair belts. Pubic tassels (made by tying multiple strands of spun fur or hair string into a mop, suspended over the genital area) were worn occasionally. Other elements of dress consisted of ornaments made from feathers, fibers, animal teeth, or shell, the use of which was often dictated by the ceremonial and social status of the wearer. More complex ornam

Dress in New Caledonia

Frédéric Angleviel

Translated by Marissa Dooris

Vikram Iyer

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands 2010

Encyclopedia entry

New Caledonia, situated in the southwest Pacific Ocean, comprises a number of islands including the Loyalty Islands, Isle des Pins, and Isle Bélep. The warm climate and tropical vegetation have had a substantial influence on what the inhabitants have worn and do wear. In the past the indigenous people of New Caledonia, the Melanesian Kanaks, embellished their bodies in various ways. Subsequently, evangelical missionaries urged these people to hide their bodies. In the twenty-first century consume

Hawaiian Dress Prior to 1898

Linda Boynton Arthur

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Hawai’i is an archipelago in the Pacific Ocean, a chain referred to simply as Hawai’i or the Hawaiian Islands. The six major islands are Oahu, Kauai, Maui, Molokai, Lanai, and the Big Island, that is, Hawai’i. The latter name is rarely used, in order to reduce confusion, since Hawai’i (the archipelago) became an American state in 1959. Until the late eighteenth century the peoples who inhabited these islands shared a common culture, although they were somewhat divided politically in that each had

Dress in Kiribati

Petra M. Autio

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The Republic of Kiribati is a central Pacific state, which consists of thirty-three tiny atolls and reef islands scattered over a vast ocean area corresponding to one-third the size of the United States. It includes three island groups—the Gilbert, Phoenix, and Line Islands—and the island of Banaba. Apart from the Banabans, who have their own, though related, history, the Gilbert Islands chain straddling the equator is where people originally settled, and where the majority (90%) of the populatio

Moko Māori: Skin Modification

Ngahuia Te Awekotuku, Linda Waimarie Nikora and Mohi Robert Rua

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The Māori people settled Aotearoa (New Zealand) from the islands of the eastern Pacific, coming in successive waves over many centuries. They brought with them the languages, music, belief systems, and technologies of their cultures of origin. They also brought the practice of permanent skin modification. Tattoo chisels similar to those used in western Polynesia have been found in some of the earliest excavations. With the new environment came new resources: massive hardwood forests, nephrite and

Influence of North American Indian and First Nations Dress on Mainstream Fashion

Pamela C. Baker and Phyllis G. Tortora

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. The United States and Canada 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Fashion designers of First Nations and North American Indian ancestry began to feel confident about being referred to as fashion designers only by the early 1970s. Fashion has not always been important to indigenous people, but telling a story has. Through their work these designers believe they are telling the story of their people; they are passionate about their work and especially passionate about how it supports their communities. The difference between North American aboriginal design and m

Aboriginal Skin Cloaks

Fabri Blacklock

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands 2010

Encyclopedia entry

In customary societies Aboriginal people were minimally clothed until contact with Europeans began to alter their habits. One exception was the skin cloaks widely worn by men and women throughout temperate zones of southeastern and western Australia. Cloaks were their main article of dress, important as rugs for warmth, but also for ceremonial use, trade, and as burial shrouds. Indigenous peoples made a variety of cloaks from different types of skin: possums, kangaroos, wallabies, and other fur-b

Dress of Vanuatu

Lissant Bolton and Jean Tarisesei

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Vanuatu is an archipelago of about eighty small islands in the southwestern Pacific. It is one of the most linguistically complex regions of the world: More than 113 languages are spoken in these islands by a population (at the start of the twenty-first century) of about 200,000. This linguistic diversity is matched by cultural diversity: Not just every island, but every district has had its own distinctive knowledge and practice, and often, its own distinctive dress styles. This diversity from p

Greenland

Cunera Buijs

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The extremes of the Arctic climate set Greenland dress apart from dress in the rest of West Europe. It is made from the skins and furs of animals and birds and is highly adapted to the conditions and lifestyle of the Arctic people. Even so there are distinctive regional dress cultures of the West Greenlanders (Kilaamiut), Northwest Greenlanders (Inughuit), and East Greenlanders (Tunumiit). It was only in the twentieth century that the dress of Greenlanders began to be influenced by dress in the r

The Northwest Coast

Kathryn B. Bunn-Marcuse

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. The United States and Canada 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The Pacific Northwest Coast has long been known for its elaborate and distinctive art styles. This attention to form and expression is no less true for clothing, especially ceremonial clothing, than for totem poles and masks. On the Northwest Coast clothing conveys identity, status, and wealth among its indigenous people, wrapping wearers in their clan and familial identities. Today, this is most clearly seen in ceremonial regalia worn on important public occasions; but dress has always provided

Body Ornaments of Solomon Islands

Ben Burt

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The country of Solomon Islands was formed in the 1890s by British colonization of a chain of islands in the southwest Pacific region of Melanesia. From west to east these include the major islands of Choiseul, New Georgia, Santa Isabel, Guadalcanal, Malaita, and Makira, with many smaller groups from Shortland Islands in the west to Santa Cruz far to the east. Like other island Melanesians in Papua New Guinea to the west and Vanuatu to the east, Solomon Islanders live by farming, foraging, and fis

Festivals Pacific-Style

Susan Cochrane

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Global Perspectives 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Examples of ceremonial dress can be found around the world. In the Pacific, festivals as ceremonies celebrate Pacific life and occur in local, regional, national, and international contexts. At the community level, every school has its culture day, every church its fete, and every family and clan celebrates events in the life cycle. On the regional level, provincial governments organize festivals or “shows” to bring the communities under their jurisdiction together to celebrate unity and diversit

The Māori Pari (Bodice)

Jo Diamond

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The pari is a Māori bodice of the rāranga type, worn with a piupiu (a type of fibrous skirt) and Māori jewelry by women in cultural performances including competitions, concerts, and festivals. Rāranga is a generic naming for plaited (as opposed to loom) handweaving practices undertaken mostly, though not exclusively, by Māori women. Māori performances usually occur in order to promote traditional practices, but for some they include a more material reward or prize money or are part of fund-raisi

Ainu

Chisato O. Dubreuil

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The Ainu, the indigenous people of Japan, live throughout Japan, but most are concentrated on the northernmost island of Hokkaido (formally known as Ezo). The definition of the word Ainu is “the people” or “humans.” Their homeland, Ainu-mosir (the Land of Humans), originally included southern Sakhalin, the lower Amur River region, the southern tip of the Kamchatka Peninsula, the Kurile Islands, Hokkaido, and at least the Tohoku region of Japan’s main island, Honshū. While there are no known full-

Torres Strait Islander Dress, Australia

Anna Edmundson

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The Torres Strait is a narrow underwater shelf connecting the northernmost tip of mainland Australia to the Gulf of Papua New Guinea. Torres Strait Islanders are the indigenous people of the region, which forms part of the Australian state of Queensland. The term ailan kastom (island custom) is used to denote those products and practices that are unique to the Torres Strait Islands, including dress.

Ethnic (Folk) Dress in West Europe

Helen Bradley Foster

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

European nations embrace common notions about folk dress as a symbol of cultural identity. The exception is England, a country not credited with a tradition of folk dress. Although the populations of many countries on other continents likewise recognize their own traditions of national dress, none uses the term folk to define that dress. The term and the manner in which its meaning changes over time and place help locate historical ideas about West European ethnic (folk) dress within temporal and

The Great Basin

Catherine S. Fowler

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. The United States and Canada 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The Great Basin is a large, semiarid region of western North America that was host to several indigenous tribes and groups prior to the coming of Europeans to the New World. Most were culturally as well as linguistically related. They included groups speaking Uto-Aztecan languages of the Numic branch: Northern Paiute, Bannock, Owens Valley Paiute; Panamint, Western, Northern, and Eastern Shoshone; and Southern Paiute, Chemehuevi, and Western, Northern, and Southern Ute. The Washoe, also tradition

The Plateau

Steven L. Grafe

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. The United States and Canada 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The traditional dress of Columbia River plateau natives reflected the abundance of their regional landscape and their access to far-reaching trade systems. Prior to contact with outsiders, Plateau attire was crafted from animal hides and adorned with various organic materials. During the nineteenth century, their attire shared many common traits with contemporaneous Plains Indian clothing. As new trade goods appeared, aboriginal clothing styles were modified, and new styles developed. Increasing

The Plains

Adriana Greci Green

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. The United States and Canada 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The Plains is a vast region comprising the central portion of the entire North American continent. Very little is known about the dress of the prehistoric inhabitants of the Plains, although there is evidence of Paleo-Indian human occupation dating back at least 13,000 years. These early inhabitants originally hunted mammoths and later pursued the buffalo herds that roamed the great expanses of grassland, as well as elk, deer, antelope, and mountain sheep. A few ornaments, primarily bone, stone,

Cambodia: Historical Dress

Gillian Green

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. South Asia and Southeast Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The origin of the indigenous Khmer people of Cambodia has not yet been unambiguously determined. Archaeological evidence of human habitation as long ago as 4200 b.c.e. has been found in the northwest of the region. Human bones found at Samrong Sen, dated to 1500 b.c.e., have characteristics suggesting an ancestral relationship to modern Khmer. Research published in the 1990s suggests that the Austro-Asiatic peoples, the ethnolinguistic group to which the Khmer belong, originate from the Yangzi Ri

Aboriginal Dress in Arnhem Land

Louise Hamby

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The items that Aboriginal people wore on their bodies in Arnhem Land, an Aboriginal reserve in the top portion of the Northern Territory, before contact with outsiders from Macassar and the rest of Australia, were influenced by environmental, cultural, and social factors. The landscape varies from the coast; Arnhem Land changes from escarpment to open woodlands. It has a monsoonal climate with hot to warm temperatures in both the wet and the dry seasons. Bodily items were not worn for warmth, pro

Liturgical Robes in New Zealand

Sandra Heffernan

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Liturgical dress worn by members of the Roman Catholic Church played an important part in daily life and religious observances, and rituals from birth to death, in colonial New Zealand. In 1838 Marist Catholic missionaries landed in the north of New Zealand, where most of the twelve Catholic mission stations were established. At this time seventy thousand Māoris were dispersed throughout the country, and there was a small European settlement of approximately twenty thousand, mostly in the ports a

Namibia

Hildi Hendrickson

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Africa 2010

Encyclopedia entry

In Namibia, the oldest indigenous forms of dress were made from the leather hides of wild and domesticated animals, decorated with shell and locally made metal beads. Before the Colonial period, differing cultural groups and social subgroups distinguished themselves through formalized yet highly inventive hairstyles, headgear, and types of tooth modification. Cloth dress was slowly introduced via Europeans and was adopted in uneven ways. Some indigenous people began wearing cloth early in the Col

The Southeast

Jason Baird Jackson

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. The United States and Canada 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The North American Indians of what is today the Southern or Southeastern United States possess a rich system of dress that can be traced from the late pre-Colonial period through the Colonial era to the present. As this is done, patterns of continuity and change over time can be seen as can the ways that native and nonnative materials, forms, and practices were creatively blended by native peoples to formulate regionally and locally distinctive modes of dress. In pre-Colonial times, the peoples o

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