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Michiko Koshino

Alessandro Esculapio

Source: Fashion Photography Archive 2015

Designer Biography

Donna Karan

Sandra J. Ley

Source: Fashion Photography Archive 2015

Designer Biography

Marithé + François Girbaud (house)

Sandra J. Ley

Source: Fashion Photography Archive 2015

Designer Biography

1990s Style: Key Themes and Trends

Melissa Marra-Alvarez

Source: Fashion Photography Archive 2015

Article

The 1990s, the decade that brought a close to the second millennium, appeared to introduce fashion trends at a breakneck pace, prompting the January 1996 issue of American Vogue to report that “never [had] a decade been so indecisive when it [came] to fashion.” However, despite the rapid cycling of styles that characterized this decade, a number of trends did manage to leave a lasting impression, such that these are now considered emblematic of 1990s fashion. This article examines five of these f

Şule Yüksel Şenler: An Early Style Icon of Urban Islamic Fashion in Turkey

Rustem Ertug Altinay

Source: Islamic Fashion and Anti-Fashion. New Perspectives from Europe and North America 2013

Book chapter

The formative years of the Republic of Turkey were characterized by a series of social and legal reforms implemented under the leadership of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk in order to construct a secular (albeit implicitly Sunni Muslim), modern, Western nation-state with an authentic Turkish essence. In Turkey’s modernization and nation-building program, women were imagined as the builders of a new life, ‘a modern way of living both in the private and the public spaces’ (Göle 1997: 51). They were expected

Introduction to Subcultural Body Style

Therèsa M. Winge

Source: Body Style 2012

Book chapter

After World War II, subcultures surfaced with prominence in urban spaces within Western culture (Thompson 1998). Scholars speculate that these subcultures formed because of shared issues and common needs that set them apart from mainstream culture and society (Cohen 1955). Over time, the term “subculture” gained negative connotations for four primary reasons. First, the very term “subculture” has a prefix of “sub,” which suggests something lower or below. Second, subculture members often come fro

Subcultural Body Style History

Therèsa M. Winge

Source: Body Style 2012

Book chapter

From the time we are born, the human body is modified for physical, spiritual, psychological, social, and cultural transformations. In fact, prehistoric mummies found in recent years suggest that body practices, modifications, associated supplements, and rituals were significant in the earliest of human cultures (Winge 2003). In 1991 a frozen Stone Age male mummy was found in the Ötztal Alps. Nicknamed Ötzi, this mummy shows evidence of possibly the earliest body modifications ever discovered. Re

Subcultural Body Style and Identity

Therèsa M. Winge

Source: Body Style 2012

Book chapter

Each subculture member has individual lived body experiences, which collectively create the generalizations about the subculture’s identity. These generalizations are then further extended to collective ideas about identity regarding the individual member, the specific subculture, and the entirety of all subcultures to some degree. The subcultural body becomes an amalgam of experiences—for example, piercings, tattoos, spiky hair, and propensity toward pain. Furthermore, each subculture has unwrit

Subcultural Body Style

Therèsa M. Winge

Source: Body Style 2012

Book chapter

While it may seem contrary to the individualistic nature of subcultures, these groups have style guidelines expected by members. Subcultural groups subtly and visually communicate acceptable dress and styles to current and future members, as well as to outsiders and posers (i.e., individuals who purposefully mimic subcultural dress). Accordingly, Ted Polhemus and Lynn Proctor (1978) state: The dress code of a social group prescribes limits, not absolute uniformity. To suggest that social identity

Future of Subcultural Body Style

Therèsa M. Winge

Source: Body Style 2012

Book chapter

Many Western subcultures contribute to and influence contemporary examples of fashion. The Hippie subculture influenced numerous fashion trends, such as embroidered jeans, shawls, and use of the peace symbol. The Punk subculture is credited with many 1980s fashion trends, such as distressed jeans, safety pin accessories, and band buttons or pins. During the past few decades, the Urban Tribal movement influenced contemporary body fashions with the use and display of body modifications, technologie

Iraqi Dress

Ulrike Al-Khamis and Saad Lafta Hami

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Central and Southwest Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Iraq is one of the largest countries in southwestern Asia. It is bordered by Iran to the east, Turkey to the north, Syria and Jordan to the west, and Saudi Arabia and Kuwait to the south. Iraq’s capital is Baghdad. Geographically, the country combines three distinct regions: fertile mountain regions in the north, the rich alluvial valleys of the Euphrates and Tigris Rivers, and expansive, arid desert plains in the west. Both the terrain and the bordering countries have had an influence on dress.

Mali

Mary Jo Arnoldi

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Africa 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Mali, in West Africa, is landlocked and borders seven countries. Although Mali has experienced rapid urbanization since the mid-twentieth century, the majority of Malians still live in rural communities. There are over fourteen ethnic groups in Mali. The basic everyday dress of cotton tunics, knee-length trousers, and caps for men, and wrappers and shawls for women remained popular in rural communities in south-central Mali well into the mid-twentieth century. Ethnic variations do exist but are m

Croatia: Urban Dress, Twentieth to Twenty-First Centuries

Maja Arčabić

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Croatia entered the twentieth century split up into several territorial units within the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Dalmatia and Istria belonged to the Austrian part, while Civil Croatia and Slavonia, as well as the city of Rijeka, were under the control of Budapest. The continuity of Croatia as a political entity in its own right was maintained by the parliament, or Sabor, which convened in Zagreb, the capital of Croatia and Slavonia, but lacked any significant authority. The border between the tw

Bosnia and Herzegovina: Urban Dress

Svetlana Bajić

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus 2010

Encyclopedia entry

In the 1878–1995 period, Bosnia and Herzegovina had to start its statehood, political system, and economy from scratch on several occasions—more often than any other territory in the immediate or surrounding region. Political change and conflicts include the Austro-Hungarian period: 1878–1914; World War I: 1914–1918; Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes and Kingdom of Yugoslavia: 1918–1945; World War II: 1941–1945; Socialist Yugoslavia: 1945–1992; war period: 1992–1995; and the Dayton Accords p

Azerbaijan—Urban Dress, the 1920s to the Twenty-First Century

Djurdja Bartlett

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The Azeri (Azerbaijani ethnicity) aristocracy and the nascent bourgeoisie and intelligentsia gradually introduced elements of Western styles into their dress beginning in the mid-nineteenth century, when the region was still part of the Russian tsarist empire. Europeanized dress was one of the elements within a wider discourse that challenged the old way of life and its long-held traditions and proposed modernization in all the fields of society. A new role for women was on the agenda of secular

Introduction to Dress and Fashion in East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus

Djurdja Bartlett

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The regions of East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus are known for their richly embroidered ethnic clothing. The varied styles of ethnic dress and the associated social practices throughout these regions were strongly influenced by both ancient traditions and highly diverse climatic and geographic conditions, ranging from subtropical to Arctic and from high mountains and rolling plains to northern oceans and southern seas. But the rich history of dress in this vast area is not confined to ethnic

Lithuanian Urban Dress, 1940s to Twenty-First Century

Djurdja Bartlett

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus 2010

Encyclopedia entry

In 1944, Soviet Russia annexed Lithuania, and it became one of the republics forming the Soviet Union. Lithuanian fashion establishments that existed from before the war were nationalized, and the new economic system of centralized production and distribution of clothes was introduced. Following the Soviet model, the Lithuanian central fashion house was established in Vilnius in 1954, in order to control the design and production of clothes. However, Lithuania, as well as Estonia and Latvia, had

Ideology and Ethnic Dress in Croatia

Aida Brenko

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Ethnic dress has been used for ideological and political purposes in Croatia from the mid-nineteenth century up through the early twenty-first century. In the course of history, individual communities have adopted clothes and clothing styles to differentiate themselves from others. Thanks to its distinctive features, dress has acted as an obvious symbol of identity. Only with the appearance of fashion and the acceptance of global fashion tendencies by elite groups from the mid-sixteenth century o

Fashion Cities

Christopher Breward

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Global Perspectives 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The history of Western fashion is closely related to the history of urban life. As cultural geographer David Gilbert has claimed, this complex relationship underpins contemporary understandings of global fashion as a system orchestrated around a shifting network of world cities, particularly Paris, New York, London, Milan, and Tokyo but also incorporating (at various times) Moscow, Vienna, Berlin, São Paulo, Kuwait City, Cape Town, Barcelona, Antwerp, Delhi, Melbourne, Sydney, Shanghai, Hong Kong

Republic of Congo and Democratic Republic of Congo

Elisabeth L. Cameron

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Africa 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Before France and Belgium divided the area in the late nineteenth century, the Republic of Congo (capital Brazzaville) and the Democratic Republic of Congo (capital Kinshasa) were a continuous area that shared cultural traits, including fashion and body art. When the Portuguese arrived at the mouth of the Congo River in the late fifteenth century, they were amazed by the high quality of the raffia cloths produced in the Congo area. The Portuguese introduced European cloth and fashions, and two of

Tunisia

Meriem Chida

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Africa 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Tunisia lies on the Mediterranean Sea, bordered by Libya and Algeria. The earliest inhabitants, called the Imazighen, spoke Berber languages and predated the Phoenicians, the Romans, the Vandals, the Byzantines, and the Arabs. Until the early seventh century, Imazighen women wore a draped dress like the Greek chiton and the Roman toga, fastened with silver fibulae, with a woolen or leather sash wrapped around the waist. In the seventh century, Arabs brought Islam to Tunisia and influenced local d

Belarus

Hanna Chuchvaha

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus 2010

Encyclopedia entry

In the thirteenth century, Belarusian ethnic territory became an independent part of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. Developing handicraft industries and foreign commerce within the duchy in the sixteenth century favored new foreign garments. During the seventeenth century, the wealthy adopted West European, predominantly French, fashion. In 1795, the eastern territories of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, including the Belarusian territories, were annexed to the Russian Empire. In the nineteenth cent

Latvia: Urban Dress

Tatjana Cvetkova and Edīte Parute

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Latvia is located at the crossroads of international trade routes and has suffered many foreign invasions. Urban fashion shows evidence of various nations that have ruled Latvia, and links with other nations have engendered a unique mix of elements, along with sensitivity to European novelties. From early times, simple, functional dress was important. This has always been embellished by ornaments and accessories. Although national details have sometimes diluted modern tendencies, urban culture ha

Polish Urban Dress in Transition from Socialism to Post-Socialism

Bogna Dowgiałło and Agnieszka Burska

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Material poverty and dramatically changed social structures influenced most Polish dress in the immediate postwar period. Because ethnic minorities had been either deported or exterminated and because both the Nazis and the Soviets had taken steps to eliminate the prewar elite, Polish society had become nearly homogenous.

Russian Fashionable Dress at the Turn of the Twentieth Century

Elizabeth Durst

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Russia’s sartorial history beginning in the eighteenth century was one of eventual assimilation to an international Western standard, yet one that met with occasional collisions between native and imported traditions, particularly as Russia considered its national identity vis-à-vis the West. Throughout the eighteenth and most of the nineteenth century, the split between those who dressed according to folk customs and those who took their cue from Paris and London primarily reflected class divisi

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