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Kate Moss

Karen de Perthuis

Source: Fashion Photography Archive 2015

Article

Kate Moss is one of the world’s most photographed women, a blank slate for contemporary dreams and desires. With a career spanning three decades, she is a rare enduring phenomenon in an industry defined by ephemerality and a brutal quest for novelty. In the summer of 1988, she was fourteen when spotted by model agent Sarah Doukas at JFK airport—a bored teenager from the London suburb of Croydon with almond eyes, cupid-bow lips, and “God-given bone structure.” She would soon become a fashion model

Ethnicity and the Catwalk

Melissa Marra-Alvarez

Source: Fashion Photography Archive 2015

Article

Fashion models possess an enduring appeal that impacts on both the world of fashion and society in general. Consequently, the lack of diversity on the catwalk in recent years has come to the fore of popular conscience. Some fashion scholars have argued that modeling practices may serve to shape our understanding and ways of seeing identity, including those based on ethnicity. Focusing on the latter half of the twentieth century, the emergence of “ethnic” models in fashion is described, examining

Adrienne Vittadini

Tory Turk

Source: Fashion Photography Archive 2015

Designer Biography

A Brief History of the Purse up to 1930

Kathleen Campbell

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Global Perspectives 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Purses, or handbags, have been a key component of a woman’s wardrobe for much of the 20th century and into the 21st. In recent years, handbags have evolved from chic accessories for carrying personal items to status symbols that may cost thousands of dollars. However, the first known purses developed centuries ago with different objectives in mind. The transformation of the form and function of the purse from ancient times through the 1920s reflects broad currents in social history, including the

Moldova

Jennifer Renea Cash

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The history of dress in Moldova requires a brief historical introduction. At the beginning of the twenty-first century, Moldova refers to the Republic of Moldova, which in its turn is best understood by distinguishing two subregions: Bessarabia and Transnistria. The ethnic majority in both regions is Moldovan (that is, Romanian), and many customs and traditions, including those related to dress and adornment, are shared between the two regions. Nevertheless, the political history of the regions w

Archaeological Evidence: China and Inner Asia

Zhao Feng and Kuang Yanghua

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

During the twentieth century, archaeological finds relating to dress have been recovered in large quantities in China. While some of the garments were made specifically as grave goods, most, it is assumed, are garments used in life to celebrate status and position. These include figures in wood, pottery, jade, and stone, as well as depictions of human figures in murals, paintings, and embroideries.

Hungary: Ethnic Dress

Ágnes Fülemile

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Throughout most of its history Hungary had a predominantly agrarian economy. The institutions of the feudal system had been only gradually eliminated during the nineteenth century. The dress of common people was strongly independent of general fashion influences. In Hungary there was a deep social gap between classes, and the dress of the agrarian population became modernized later than that of city dwellers. The most flourishing period of regional peasant dress was the nineteenth and early twent

Cambodia: Historical Dress

Gillian Green

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. South Asia and Southeast Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The origin of the indigenous Khmer people of Cambodia has not yet been unambiguously determined. Archaeological evidence of human habitation as long ago as 4200 b.c.e. has been found in the northwest of the region. Human bones found at Samrong Sen, dated to 1500 b.c.e., have characteristics suggesting an ancestral relationship to modern Khmer. Research published in the 1990s suggests that the Austro-Asiatic peoples, the ethnolinguistic group to which the Khmer belong, originate from the Yangzi Ri

Georgia

Irina Koshoridze

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The history of Georgian ethnic dress is closely related to the history of textiles in this region. Simultaneously, the nature of the country, ethnic differences between the regions, the political orientations of the different regions, contemporary fashions, and foreign influences also played important roles in the formation of this dress.

Trade, Textiles, and Dress in Central and Southwest Asia

Abby Lillethun

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Central and Southwest Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Textiles and dress provide invaluable opportunities for insight into the encounters of lifestyles with infrastructures of trade and exchange. Textiles and dress in Central and Southwest Asia cover a long historical arc, from the earliest known archaeological textile finds to the twenty-first century.

Class

Elizabeth D. Lowe

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. The United States and Canada 2010

Encyclopedia entry

To understand the current relationships between class and dress in the United States and Canada, it is necessary to review the most important theories that have been put forth about class and dress in Western Europe. There are nearly as many opinions about the nature of class as there are people. These opinions vary widely, ranging from, “class explains everything” to “it no longer exists.” To many, social class has become just a metaphor for varied access to resources, a way to describe the unev

Archaeological Evidence: Korea

Seongsil Park

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Paleolithic period people settled in the Korean Peninsula 40,000 to 50,000 years ago. The relationship of these peoples to contemporary Korean populations is unknown. Between 6,000 and 2,000 years ago, Neolithic migrations from Northeast Asia, Siberia, and Central Asia brought new populations to Korea. Chulmun, or “comb-marked,” pottery people, left evidence of sewing tools in the form of bone needles and a variety of shell disks and beads, although no garments have been recovered that date from

Leisure

Jean L. Parsons

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. The United States and Canada 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Sportswear, casual wear, business casual, and casual Friday all suggest variations on leisure dress intended for a relaxed or less formal approach to dressing. The concept of dressing for leisure that emerged at the end of the nineteenth century and continued throughout the twentieth was different from that of earlier periods. Leisure dressing occurred across gender and class lines and involved a steady erosion of occasion-specific dressing. Women borrowed traditionally male attire for sport and

Latvia: Ancient and Ethnic Dress

Ieva Pigozne-Brinkmane

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Between the seventh and thirteenth centuries, the territory known in the early twenty-first century as Latvia was inhabited by its indigenous people, the Baltic and Finno-Ugric tribes. Evidence of dress can be found from archaeological excavations. Men and women wore clothing made at home from locally grown flax and fleece; accessories were made from leather and furs of domestic and wild animals. The primary garment was a long-sleeved collarless linen tunic, long for women, shorter for men. Men w

Estonia: Urban Dress

Reet Piiri

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus 2010

Encyclopedia entry

In the thirteenth century, Estonia was divided among German nobility, but no German peasants moved there, so a clear ethnic divide developed along class lines. Clothing was produced in guilds, and also at home, especially (but not only) in poorer households. The fifteenth century marked the advent of the décolleté, hoop skirt, flared sleeves, and gold and silver embroidery. Although the Reformation reached Estonia in 1523, the courtly clothing fashions of Catholic Spain exerted an influence. The

Sources of Information about Dress in Southwest Asia

Tineke Rooijakkers

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Central and Southwest Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Information on dress in Southwest Asia (also referred to as the Middle East or the Near East) is derived from both primary evidence, such as actual textiles and garments or tools for textile production, and secondary evidence, which includes textual and pictographic sources. Textual sources incorporate not only written references to dress in prose or poetry but also laws, trade accounts, inventories, wedding contracts, travelogues, and so on. Depictions of dress can be found in paintings, frescoe

Introduction to the History of Dress in the Arabian Desert and Peninsula

Tineke Rooijakkers

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Central and Southwest Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The Arabian Peninsula is a subcontinent shaped by its climate, containing a central plateau (the Nejd), occasionally marshy coastal plains along the Persian Gulf, and mountain ranges along the Red Sea coast. It is mostly known for its great deserts, the Nafud, the Dhana, and the Rub’ al-Khal. There is very little surface water, and less than one percent of the region is suitable for agriculture. These factors have shaped the way of life of the Arabs. There are some towns and cities located near s

Introduction to the History of Dress on the Iranian Plateau

Willem Vogelsang

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Central and Southwest Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The Iranian Plateau stretches from the banks of the Tigris River in the west to the valley of the Indus River in the east, and from the arid expanse of West Turkistan in the north to the Indian Ocean in the south. It is a harsh land, with limited water supplies, hot summers, and sometimes bitterly cold winters. Its geographic location, however, has made it into a natural transition zone between the plains of Southwest Asia, including ancient Mesopotamia, and the humid valleys and arid deserts of

Saudi Arabian Dress

Gillian Vogelsang-Eastwood

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Central and Southwest Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Saudi Arabia is a vast country dominated by deserts, oases, and mountain ranges. Until recently these natural features had separated the various communities that live throughout the peninsula. Saudi Arabia is, therefore, often divided into four geographical and cultural areas: the Northern Province (the Nafud), Eastern Province (the Hasa), Western Province (the Hijaz and `Asir) and the Central Province (the Nejd). For hundreds of years the Northern Province has looked northward toward Syria, Iraq

Face Veils

Gillian Vogelsang-Eastwood

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Central and Southwest Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

A face veil is a separate garment that is used to cover all or part of the face, usually that of a woman. Ethnic and cultural origins often play a prominent role in whether a woman wears a face veil, and what type. Some groups have insisted on women being veiled because their presence is a sexual distraction to men. Veiling is also used to indicate the physical status of a female, that is, to show if she is in the fertile phase of her life. In patriarchal societies, veiling is sometimes linked to

Greece

Linda Welters

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Greece is a comparatively small country, yet it commands an important position in the history of dress. Situated at the crossroads of Asia and Europe, with Egypt on the opposite shore across the Mediterranean Sea, Greece has experienced many political and cultural upheavals that have influenced the manner in which its inhabitants dressed. Likewise, the attire of the ancient Greeks has affected the clothing choices of other cultures, past and present.

Overview: Han Chinese

Juanjuan Wu and John E. Vollmer

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Today, the Han people represent over ninety-two percent of the population in China. Han populations are dispersed worldwide. Their name comes from the Han dynasty (206 b.c.e.–220 c.e.), the first period of expanded empire in East Asia. Although no dress from the early period survives, representations in bronze or jade indicate that elites wore elaborate patterned robes. Figures that are apparently servants are less ornately dressed. The oldest Chinese writings mention the importance of dress in d

Bangladesh

Niaz Zaman

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. South Asia and Southeast Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Bordered to the south by the Bay of Bengal, to the west, north, and east by India, and to the southeast by Myanmar, Bangladesh became an independent country in 1971. The climate is tropical, with heavy seasonal rainfall for about four months of the year, high temperatures, and high humidity. Though temperatures fall in winter, necessitating the use of shawls and wraps, the prevailing warmth and humidity require clothes to be light and few. The indigenous dress of the lower Gangetic Delta was unst

Gesture, Ritual, and Social Order in Sixteenth- to Eighteenth-Century Poland

Maria Bogucka

Source: Classic and Modern Writings on Fashion 2nd Edition 2009

Book chapter

Both manners and bodily comportment of a nobleman should be grave and full of dignity. Mikolaj Rej, a famous writer of noble origin, wrote in the middle of the seventeenth century:

Society and Festivals

Jacob Burckhardt

Source: Classic and Modern Writings on Fashion 2nd Edition 2009

Book chapter

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