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Louise Brooks

Elizabeth Glendinning

Source: Fashion Photography Archive 2015

Article

Louise Brooks (1906–1985) was the epitome of the 1920s “flapper,” whose iconic look and style reflected the speed and dynamism of modernity, and whose liberated approach to life and her own identity contributed to her often tragic legacy.

Chanel Haute Couture, Karl Lagerfeld, Fall/Winter 1984

Michelle Honig

Source: Fashion Photography Archive 2015

Article

Shown at the Palais Garnier in Paris, home of the national opera, this fashion show was the most lavish and over-the-top fashion event in Paris at the time and began Karl Lagerfeld’s tradition of showmanship and set design. As with Karl’s first Chanel collection, this collection was panned for its deviation from Chanel’s trademark of easy comfort, with the classic Chanel suit made in a fitted silhouette that outlined the derrière. But it was also praised by others for updating Chanel’s image from

Sonja Nuttall

Elizabeth Kutesko

Source: Fashion Photography Archive 2015

Designer Biography

Martine Sitbon

Shari Sims

Source: Fashion Photography Archive 2015

Designer Biography

Fashion and the Time of Modern Femininity

Ilya Parkins

Source: Poiret, Dior and Schiaparelli. Fashion, Femininity and Modernity 2012

Book chapter

Peter Osborne asks, ‘What kind of time does modernity inscribe?’Osborne, The Politics of Time, p. 5. His book-length answer is foundational in a small but crucial body of literature about the temporal character of modernity. This literature establishes that the basic challenge of modern temporal consciousness is its reflexivity: modernity becomes the first era equipped to recognize itself as an era, and to distinguish itself from earlier eras—the past—while opening toward the future.In discussing

Paul Poiret: Classic and New in the Struggle for Designer Mastery

Ilya Parkins

Source: Poiret, Dior and Schiaparelli. Fashion, Femininity and Modernity 2012

Book chapter

In a meditation on the accumulation of symbolic capital in the fields of cultural production, Bourdieu, who views fashion as one among many such fields, explains that the production of time is central to the work of distinguishing the artists: ‘To “make one’s name” (faire date) means making one’s mark, achieving recognition (in both senses) of one’s difference from other producers; at the same time, it means creating a new position beyond the positions presently occupied, ahead of them, in the av

Elsa Schiaparelli: Glamour, Privacy and Timelessness

Ilya Parkins

Source: Poiret, Dior and Schiaparelli. Fashion, Femininity and Modernity 2012

Book chapter

The opening lines of Schiaparelli’s 1954 autobiography, Shocking Life, are curious. Referring to herself in the third person, as she does intermittently throughout the text, Schiaparelli writes, ‘I merely know Schiap by hearsay. I have only seen her in a mirror.’ElsaSchiaparelli, Shocking Life (1954; reprint, V&A Publications, 2007), p. vii. Here, with surprising bluntness, she sets herself up as someone who is ‘split’, having a rich inner life characterized by multiple visions of self.For a tho

Christian Dior: Nostalgia and the Economy of Feminine Beauty

Ilya Parkins

Source: Poiret, Dior and Schiaparelli. Fashion, Femininity and Modernity 2012

Book chapter

Dior’s initial stylistic ‘innovation’, though, had a complex temporal logic. As the strong reactions to it—both favourable and unfavourable—testified, it undeniably represented a return of a much older, if not precisely historically definable, silhouette. Its temporality was captured in an apparent contradiction: embraced as ‘revolutionary’, the New Look’s groundbreaking quality derived from its unabashed reclaiming of what might be read as a more conservative, older ideal of feminine beauty. Jus

North American Influences on West European Dress

Rebecca Arnold

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

North America’s effect on West European fashion is often viewed only in relation to Hollywood and celebrity. However, its influence has been far more diverse, from technological inventions to leisure wear and the professionalization of the industry.

Azerbaijan—Urban Dress, the 1920s to the Twenty-First Century

Djurdja Bartlett

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The Azeri (Azerbaijani ethnicity) aristocracy and the nascent bourgeoisie and intelligentsia gradually introduced elements of Western styles into their dress beginning in the mid-nineteenth century, when the region was still part of the Russian tsarist empire. Europeanized dress was one of the elements within a wider discourse that challenged the old way of life and its long-held traditions and proposed modernization in all the fields of society. A new role for women was on the agenda of secular

Introduction to Dress and Fashion in East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus

Djurdja Bartlett

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The regions of East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus are known for their richly embroidered ethnic clothing. The varied styles of ethnic dress and the associated social practices throughout these regions were strongly influenced by both ancient traditions and highly diverse climatic and geographic conditions, ranging from subtropical to Arctic and from high mountains and rolling plains to northern oceans and southern seas. But the rich history of dress in this vast area is not confined to ethnic

Dress Reforms of the Early Twentieth Century in Turkey, Iran, and Afghanistan

Derek Bryce

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Central and Southwest Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

During the 1920s and 1930s, three states—Turkey, Iran, and Afghanistan—embarked on a series of wide-ranging programmatic reforms designed to transform their respective societies fundamentally. Often called “modernization from above” because of their association with authoritarian elites, these reforms attempted to impose changes in state, economic, and sociocultural spheres that favored broadly Western models and to replace or restrict the practice of corresponding traditional, indigenous, or Isl

Introduction: The Study of African Dress

Joanne B. Eicher and Doran H. Ross

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Africa 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Perceptions of dress in Africa are subject to more stereotypes than perhaps the rest of the world; in fact, African dress traditions are as sophisticated and complex as those found anywhere else. Human origins are now conclusively traced to the current countries of Tanzania, Kenya and Ethiopia. Marine shell beads in Africa date back at least 200,000 years; reliance on the local natural environment for materials clearly diminished as most African groups begin contact with their neighbors, incorpor

Heads of State and Dress

Suzanne Gott

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Africa 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The modes of dress worn by African heads of state since independence have served as highly visible expressions of political philosophies and programs during different periods of national leadership. African leaders have also developed memorable trademark ensembles for projecting political personas.

Historical Survey of Textiles and Dress in Turkey

Charlotte Jirousek

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Central and Southwest Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The Turkic people have a long and far-reaching history that originates in Central Asia, where ethnic Turks are still found. Turkic people in the early twenty-first century reside across the length of Asia, from northwestern China to the Balkans. The term Turkic refers to the general ethnolinguistic group that includes existing societies such as the Kazakhs, Uzbeks, Kyrgyz, Tatar, Uighurs, Azerbaijani, Turkmen, and Turkish people. It also includes past civilizations such as the Xiongnu, Cumans, Av

Jewish Dress in Central and Southwest Asia and the Diaspora

Esther Juhasz

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Central and Southwest Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Jewish dress has been shaped by the Jewish code of law, halacha, and various types of contacts with other religions and cultures. The halacha deals in detail with the desired conduct of a Jew in everyday life, including explicit rulings and recommended attitudes on dress. No specific dress was ever mandated by Jewish law, and as a result no universal Jewish dress evolved. Some common principles are recognizable in a variety of styles of Jewish dress. In some places Jews played an active role in t

The Sari

Aarti Kawlra

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. South Asia and Southeast Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The word sari refers to the unstitched length of cloth that serves as the principal component of a clothing ensemble that most often includes a bodice and a petticoat. Known widely as the national dress of the Indian woman, the sari is a draped item of clothing whose contemporary sartorial expression has evolved over centuries of exchange between indigenous cultures and foreign influence. Historical records of the textile trade from India include mention of saris woven in special designs and tech

Overview of Korea: Modern

Min-Ja Kim

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The Gapsin Reform in 1884, prompted by a coup d’état staged by a group of reformists called the Progressives, initiated the transformation of Korea into a modern society by diffusing foreign ideas and cultures. Western fashion, as a symbol of modernization, became widespread in everyday life, supplanting the traditions that had dominated Korea’s clothing system for hundreds of years. During the twentieth century, the five-thousand-year-old traditional dress culture was made over through an accult

Yemeni Dress

Christina Lindholm

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Central and Southwest Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Yemen has four main regions: Tihamah (an arid and flat coastal plain in the southwest), the western highlands (which boast diverse agriculture), the eastern highlands, and the Rub’ Al Khali, which means “the Empty Quarter.” This lies to the north and is the world’s largest sand desert, with summer temperatures of over 130 degrees Fahrenheit (54 degrees Celsius). Bab El-Mandeb, the southwestern coastal strait, links the Red Sea with the Indian Ocean and was an important trade corridor for three th

Antifashion in East Asian Dress: Power of Uniforms

Brian J. McVeigh

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Fashion in East Asia reveals historical trajectories following the same path as Euro–American modernities. Modernization underpins the fashion-oriented consumerism visible today in Japan, China, Taiwan, and Hong Kong, accounting for the interplay between fashion, counter-fashion, and antifashion. Counter-fashion is concerned with an interest in change and avant-garde styles. It may be associated with dissent, protest, or ridicule. Antifashion (commonly confused with counter-fashion) means styles

Kurdish Dress

Layla Yousif Pio

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Central and Southwest Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Kurdistan is located in central Southwest Asia and covers an area of approximately 151,350 square miles (392,000 square kilometers) incorporated into parts of eastern Turkey, northwestern Iran, northern Iraq, northern Syria, and the former Soviet Union. There are also two large Kurdish enclaves in central and north-central Anatolia in Turkey and in the province of Khorassan in northeast Iran. The Kurds remain the largest ethnic population in the world without an autonomous independent state of th

Regional Dress in Anatolia

Jennifer M. Scarce

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Central and Southwest Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The importance of dress as visible evidence of the wearer’s roles and responsibilities in both public and private domains (such as rank, profession, religious and ethnic identity, wealth, age, and marital and familial status) and, to a certain extent, personal taste within the limits of acceptable codes of behavior is an eloquent statement of the multicultural diversity of the Ottoman Turkish Empire, whose territories extended from Southeast Europe to Arab lands. Anatolia, the empire’s hinterland

Japanese Sartorial Modernity

Toby Slade

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

In 1853, however, all that abruptly began to change. The arrival of the vastly superior American warships in Tokyo Bay and the threat they represented meant that a policy of isolation became untenable. Either Japan would have to modernize to protect itself, or it would be modernized as a colony of a foreign power. Thus Edo Japan began its terminating crisis, a fashion crisis as well as a political one. Because it was the first non-Euro-American nation to modernize, it was unclear what elements of

Islamic Fashion Scape

Emma Tarlo

Source: Visibly Muslim. Fashion, Politics, Faith 4th Edition 2010

Book chapter

If there is one factor that the first generation of British Islamic fashion designers share in common it is an understanding of the clothing dilemmas of young Muslims living in the West who wish to dress in ways that are fashionable and modern on the one hand and faithful and modest on the other. It is a dilemma which most designers learned, not so much through savvy market research and economic foresight, as from their own highly personal experiences of being unable to find clothes which express

Reza Shah’s Dress Reforms in Iran

Gillian Vogelsang-Eastwood

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Central and Southwest Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Some of the most enduring and controversial legacies of the reign of Reza Shah Pahlavi, the shah of Iran from 1925 to 1941, were the changes he made in the dress of both men and women living in Iran. The repercussions of these changes can still be felt in the early twenty-first century.

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