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Liberty of Dress

Valerie Steele

Source: Paris Fashion. A Cultural History, 3rd Edition, 2017, Berg Fashion Library

Book chapter

Nulle personne de l’un ou de l’autre sexe ne pourra contraindre aucun citoyen ni citoyenne à se vêtir d’une manière particulière, chacun étant libre de porter tel vêtement et ajustement de son sexe que bon lui semblera, sous peine d’être considéré et traité comme suspect, et poursuivi comme perturbateur du repos public.

Fashion in Balzac’s Paris

Valerie Steele

Source: Paris Fashion. A Cultural History, 3rd Edition, 2017, Berg Fashion Library

Book chapter

La toilette est l’expression de la société.

Channeling the Beast

Barbara Brownie and Danny Graydon

Source: The Superhero Costume. Identity and disguise in fact and fiction, 2016, Berg Fashion Library

Book chapter

physiognomyImages depicting animals with human characteristics, and hybrid animal-human beasts, were a staple of ancient religion and mythology. Sometimes, they were deities, like Bastet, the feline goddess of Ancient Egypt, and at other times they were the monstrous product of animal/human coupling, like ancient Crete’s Minotaur. These historical animal-human hybrids had a special power and allure. The duality of this fusion of “human and the non-human” can be frightening, or at least unsettling

Gloves ‘of the Very Thin Sort’: Gifting Limerick Gloves in the Late Eighteenth and Early Nineteenth Centuries

Liza Foley

Source: Dress History. New Directions in Theory and Practice, 2015, Berg Fashion Library

Book chapter

Although leather was essential for the production of a wide range of eighteenth-century objects, including gloves, very little consideration has been given to the significance of the materiality of leather itself. As historian Giorgio Riello has shown, leather was a scarce material in pre-Industrial England. ‘Confined to the natural world and to a stable cattle asset’ (2008: 77), its production largely depended on the meat market, which, in the case of sheep, and to a greater extent cattle, accou

Antonio Berardi

Shonagh Marshall

Source: Fashion Photography Archive, 2015, Fashion Photography Archive

Designer Biography

Color symbolism

Edith Anderson Feisner and Ronald Reed

Source: Color Studies, 3rd Edition, 2014, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter

After reading this chapter, you will:

Local Color vs. Symbolic Color

Chris Dorosz and J.R. Watson

Source: Designing with Color. Concepts and Applications, 2011, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter

The selection of color can be classified into these two categories—local vs. symbolic.

Color Anomalies, Emotional Response, Symbolism, and Trends

James Thomas Long

Source: The New Munsell Student Color Set, 4th Edition, 2011, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter + STUDIO

The objective of this chapter is to inform the reader of the many challenges involved in understanding and using color, including the often contradictory and unreliable common associations and assigned meaning to the hues and colors.

Yoruba in Nigeria and Diaspora

Rowland Abiodun

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Africa, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

The Yoruba people number well over thirty million from about sixteen ancient kingdoms. They spread all over southwestern Nigeria and extend well into the neighboring countries of Benin and Togo. The Yoruba have been urbanized since the first millennium c.e. and are well known for their fine artistic achievements, especially the naturalistic life-size bronze heads and terra-cotta sculptures of Ile-Ife. In addition to being among the most accomplished carvers in wood and ivory in Africa, the Yoruba

Headdresses and Hairdos

Mary Jo Arnoldi

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Africa, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

Headwear has been an important feature of everyday wear and ceremonial display in Africa from ancient times to the present day. Hats and hairstyles can mark or celebrate changes in the life cycle, denote a person’s status in the community, signal membership in a religious or initiation society, designate key participants at rituals and festivals, or identify political and religious leaders and occupational specialists. Hats designed for daily wear provide pragmatic solutions to the problem of phy

West Africa

Lisa Aronson

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Africa, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

West African markets are well known for their tightly packed displays of textiles in rich arrays of colors and patterns, and tailors on their sewing machines can be heard everywhere sewing visually striking garments that seldom go unnoticed when worn in public. So vital and richly varied are textiles in West Africa that even prominent contemporary artists such as El Anatsui from Ghana and Nigeria and Yinka Shonibare from Nigeria are inspired by them as powerful mediums for discourse on historical

Moko Māori: Skin Modification

Ngahuia Te Awekotuku, Linda Waimarie Nikora and Mohi Robert Rua

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

The Māori people settled Aotearoa (New Zealand) from the islands of the eastern Pacific, coming in successive waves over many centuries. They brought with them the languages, music, belief systems, and technologies of their cultures of origin. They also brought the practice of permanent skin modification. Tattoo chisels similar to those used in western Polynesia have been found in some of the earliest excavations. With the new environment came new resources: massive hardwood forests, nephrite and

Jewelry of Indo-Pakistan and Bangladesh

Usha Bala

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. South Asia and Southeast Asia, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

The vibrant tradition of Indian jewelry spans five thousand continuous years. Ancient Indians wore jewels of natural materials like shells and tusks, thought to have magical properties. Precious metals were coveted. Gold was regarded as a symbol of the sun; chandi, the term for silver, came from the Sanskrit chandra, meaning moon. Metals were regularly melted. Remarkably well-preserved gold and silver items excavated at Taxila, in modern-day Pakistan, constitute the largest cache of jewelry survi

Introduction to Southeast Asia

Ruth Barnes

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. South Asia and Southeast Asia, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

Southeast Asia comprises two distinct areas, the mainland and an archipelago of islands extending from Sumatra to the Philippines and the Moluccas. Both the mainland and the archipelago have exceptionally rich traditions of adorning the human body. Dress acts as a social indicator, and dress requirements are associated with religious and social ceremonies. The earliest detailed representations of Southeast Asian dress come from religious edifices dating from the ninth century. Ordinary people’s d

Hair

Geraldine Biddle-Perry and Sarah Cheang

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Global Perspectives, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

Across cultures, the symbolic and material management of hair on bodies, faces and heads is intrinsic to human adornment and hygiene, ritualized belief, and commercial enterprise. Fashions in hair can display an enormous and shifting range of aesthetic and social conventions. A wide variety of primary and secondary sources provides an overview of key debates and theories that describe, inform, and develop our understanding of the styling and management of human hair as a powerful vehicle for soci

Dress of Vanuatu

Lissant Bolton and Jean Tarisesei

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

Vanuatu is an archipelago of about eighty small islands in the southwestern Pacific. It is one of the most linguistically complex regions of the world: More than 113 languages are spoken in these islands by a population (at the start of the twenty-first century) of about 200,000. This linguistic diversity is matched by cultural diversity: Not just every island, but every district has had its own distinctive knowledge and practice, and often, its own distinctive dress styles. This diversity from p

Convict Dress in Australia

Julia Clark, Linda Clark, Kim Simpson, Ian Terry and Elspeth Wishart

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

Following the American War of Independence, Britain could no longer send convicts there, so one hundred and sixty thousand convicts were transported to the Australian colonies between 1788 and 1868. Their management, including clothing, was an enormous undertaking. Colonial penal authorities aimed to regulate convicts, make them easily identifiable, and classify them within the penal system. However, it was difficult to establish a coherent clothing system. Until the 1820s, convict clothing was o

Masquerade, Theater, Dance Costumes

Herbert M. Cole

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Africa, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

African masquerades, perhaps the continent’s premier art form, play grandly with illusion, ambivalence, and paradox. Masks and masquerades are both more, and less, than what they appear to be. Their illusionist play can be comic and lighthearted, or deeply serious, but always it is creative and imaginative, art and artifice. Never is it ordinary, and usually it is deeply meaningful and sometimes powerfully instrumental. Masquerades both create and help organize values and knowledge, and they are

Ainu

Chisato O. Dubreuil

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Asia, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

The Ainu, the indigenous people of Japan, live throughout Japan, but most are concentrated on the northernmost island of Hokkaido (formally known as Ezo). The definition of the word Ainu is “the people” or “humans.” Their homeland, Ainu-mosir (the Land of Humans), originally included southern Sakhalin, the lower Amur River region, the southern tip of the Kamchatka Peninsula, the Kurile Islands, Hokkaido, and at least the Tohoku region of Japan’s main island, Honshū. While there are no known full-

Philippines: North

George R. Ellis

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. South Asia and Southeast Asia, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

The mountain mass comprising part of the north of Luzon, the largest and northernmost island of the Philippines, is known as the Gran Cordillera Central. Its inhabitants arrived at various periods and are known by various names, the earliest recorded being in Spanish. In one sense their dress is homogenous. Women’s basic clothing consists of a tapis (skirt), while men wear loincloths; both are sometimes complemented by jackets. Blankets are widely worn, for warmth and as finery. Hats, headdresses

Dress and Identity

Sandra Lee Evenson

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Global Perspectives, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

Dress is a visual form of communication. Before two people are close enough to each other to exchange words, they communicate a world of information (or misinformation) through dress. They may register gender, age, ethnic origin, income, social status, rank, occupation, group membership, sexual availability, personality, opinions, beliefs, tastes, interests, and mood. Some scholars have suggested that because so much information is exchanged through the medium of dress, face-to-face social intera

Bridal Dress in Japan

Ofra Goldstein-Gidoni

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Asia, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

Modern Japanese wear Western-style clothing (yôfuku). Japanese attire (wafuku) that is clearly distinguished from Western attire is worn mainly on ceremonial occasions, especially for life-cycle events such as weddings, funerals, and the coming-of-age ceremony (seijin shiki) celebrated at the age of twenty. Of all these occasions, the wedding ceremony is marked not only with the most elaborate traditional costumes but also with an unparalleled combination of Japanese and Western dress.

Khil’a: Clothing to Honor a Person or Situation

Stewart Gordon

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Central and Southwest Asia, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

Khil’a was a ceremony that included elite and expensive textiles made into particular garments. These garments were used to define a relationship of honorable service. At its simplest, a king or his representative bestowed on another person, usually of lower rank, an outer cloak, shirt, sash, and pants, plus often a turban and shoes. In a robing room adjacent to the court, the recipient donned the whole outfit, reemerged to the acclaim of the assembled nobles, and—if not so before—was deemed “sui

Ceremonial and Special-Occasion Dress

Michaele Thurgood Haynes

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Global Perspectives, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

There is a difference between the terms ceremonial and special-occasion dress. The latter is an out-of-the-ordinary event, possibly unique. Societal conventions create parameters as to what is acceptable wear at these times, but personal clothing choices made by the participants help make it a special occasion. Ceremonial refers to repeated events occurring within a set framework, a somewhat rigid and formalized series of actions. In anthropological terms, a ceremony is generally more suitably na

The Novel and Dress

Clair Hughes

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

The stories of Beatrix Potter would have no plots, someone remarked, if the animals had no clothes. This cannot be said of fictional characters in general, but all the same, authors do not usually send their characters naked into the world—dress can play a surprisingly important role in their narratives. The clothes described and illustrated by Potter anchor her animals to a workaday rural society. They bridge the gap between nineteenth-century reality and Potter’s version of it: a miniature worl

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