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Germany

Irene Guenther

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

German dress in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries was closely linked to French–German relations. Critics disapproved of affluent German women’s fondness for French styles. During the Napoleonic wars, German rural folk dress often featured prominently at national festivals, manifesting patriotism. Ironically, it was with the French occupation during this time that German fragmentation consolidated, bringing a sense of “Germanness.” Industrialization occurred rapidly in the German states. Afte

The Social Significance of Institutional Dress in New Zealand

Bronwyn Labrum

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands 2010

Encyclopedia entry

As a settler colony, New Zealand inherited its range of institutions, their modes of operation, and their day-to-day practices from Britain. This legacy included the forms of institutional dress worn by institutional staff and residents, although they were modified to suit the distinctive economic, political, and cultural context that developed in the South Pacific nation. Often is it easier to find out about the experiences of staff whose activities appear in annual reports and institutional arc

Women’s Cooperatives and Self-Help Artists

Kimberly Miller and Brenda Schmahmann

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Africa 2010

Encyclopedia entry

During the 1980s and 1990s, a number of art-making cooperatives were set up to address the dire poverty of communities in South Africa as well as so-called homelands such as Gazankulu and Bophuthatswana. Some catered to men and women, coupling an imperative to generate income for members with an agenda to protest against apartheid through the creation of art. The majority, however, catered specifically to women who, in addition to being denied human rights and economic opportunities through apart

Interpreting “Civilization” through Dress

Sandra Niessen

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Accepted wisdom holds that dress traditions reflect the full range of environmental factors—physical, cultural, and social—under which they are produced and worn. In this, West European dress is no different from any other clothing system found in the world. Historically, however, the dress of Western civilization has been accorded a special position that has only recently begun to be seriously questioned. At the same time, its primacy can scarcely be disputed, as it has been used as the model fo

Obesity and Powerlessness

Betsy Covell Breseman, Sharron J. Lennon and Theresa L. Schulz

Source: Appearance and Power 1999

Book chapter

Historically, many groups in U.S. society have experienced discrimination based on race, religion, lifestyle, and gender.For example, women, African Americans, Hispanic Americans, Mormons, Jews, gay men, and lesbians have all experienced some level of discrimination. Until they began to seek their legal and civil rights, people within these groups suffered from a lack of power or control over consequences in their lives. Although prejudice against these groups has not disappeared entirely, there

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