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Early History of Dress and Fashion in Italy and the Iberian Peninsula

Carmen Alfaro Giner and Maria Giuseppina Muzzarelli

Translated by Ana Alacovska

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Rock engravings in Valcamonica, Italy, indicate the use of looms and thus weaving in the second millennium b.c.e. Tunics were worn by both men and women during pre-Roman times in the Iberian Peninsula.Italian regions colonized by Greece in the eighth century b.c.e. were influenced by Hellenic fashion. The Roman royal period lasted from 753 to 509 b.c.e., followed by the republic and the empire. Clothing during the first two periods was largely austere, although wealth and refinement characterized

Early Evidence of Fashion in West Europe

Sarah-Grace Heller

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

For the Roman period, relatively rich quantities of textual and visual sources (notably sculpture and mosaics) survive; actual items of apparel are extremely rare, as is the case for most areas up through the Middle Ages. Rome had urban populations, skilled artisans, trading networks, and an active culture of social criticism and satire that often used the lexicon of adornment to evaluate merit, reputation, and the erotic. Roman status was defined visually. More problematic for fashion is the rat

Armor

Walter Karcheski

Source: The Berg Companion to Fashion 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Humans’ earliest supplemental protection was probably skins and hides. However, the earliest purpose-built defense, found in Europe and western Asia, was a type of belly plate made originally of organic material and later in bronze or metal-reinforced fabric. The Sumerians employed metal helmets and a metal-reinforced cloak. In about 2000 B.C.E. textile coverings appeared with applied, overlapping metal scales, which continued in occasional use until the eighteenth century.

Italy

Elisabetta Merlo and Francesca Polese

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

If we use the expression Italian fashion to indicate the production of garments and accessories that are marked by distinctive and unique features universally associated with Italian culture and identity, then such a phenomenon appears only well after the political unification of the country (1861) and indeed is barely discernible prior to World War II. Moreover, even once the creations of Italian couturiers became celebrated in international markets beginning in the 1950s, Italy’s fashion scene

Costume for Dance

Helena Wulff

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The appearance of the tutu (a stiff, delicate ballet skirt made of tulle), together with pointe shoes (which enable ballerinas to dance on pointe, that is, on the tip of their toes) in 1832 in Paris marked the turning point for costumes used for different types of dance in West Europe. Dance costumes have been included in chronological accounts listing ballet and contemporary dance production credits and have also been studied as costumes and garments in their social and cultural contexts, often

Gesture, Ritual, and Social Order in Sixteenth- to Eighteenth-Century Poland

Maria Bogucka

Source: Classic and Modern Writings on Fashion 2nd Edition 2009

Book chapter

Both manners and bodily comportment of a nobleman should be grave and full of dignity. Mikolaj Rej, a famous writer of noble origin, wrote in the middle of the seventeenth century:

Society and Festivals

Jacob Burckhardt

Source: Classic and Modern Writings on Fashion 2nd Edition 2009

Book chapter

Looks and Appearance

Baldesar Castiglione

Source: Classic and Modern Writings on Fashion 2nd Edition 2009

Book chapter

‘I remember your saying earlier that this courtier of ours should be naturally endowed with beauty of countenance and person and with an attractive grace. Well, I feel sure that I possess both grace and beauty of countenance, and that's why so many women, as you know, are madly in love with me. But when it comes to the beauty of my person, I am rather doubtful, and especially as regards these legs of mine which do not seem to me to be as good as I would wish; still, as to my chest and so on, I am

Prescribing Fashion: Dress, Politics and Gender in Sixteenth-Century Italian Conduct Literature

Elizabeth Currie

Source: Classic and Modern Writings on Fashion 2nd Edition 2009

Book chapter

In the evening, when it is customary for Florentines to go out often, they wear caps on their heads, and cloaks in the Spanish style, that is with a hood at the back. Men who wear these during the day, unless they are soldiers, are considered disreputable and shabby. In the house they wear a large beret in the winter, and either a frock-coat or a catelano; in the summer a small beret, a house-coat of cloth or gabardine from Lille. Whoever rides horses wears a cloak or some type of loose over-coat

The Renaissance Beard: Masculinity in Early Modern England

Will Fisher

Source: Classic and Modern Writings on Fashion 2nd Edition 2009

Book chapter

This essay builds on Judith Butler's recent theoretical work in Bodies that Matter by suggesting that the sexual differences that “mattered” in early modern England are not exactly the same as those that “matter” today. In particular, it suggests that facial hair often conferred masculinity during the Renaissance: the beard made the man. The centrality of the beard is powerfully demonstrated by both portraits and theatrical practices. Indeed, virtually all men in portraits painted between the mid

Gendered Space in Renaissance Florence: Theorizing Public and Private in the “Rag Trade”

Carole Collier Frick

Source: Classic and Modern Writings on Fashion 2nd Edition 2009

Book chapter

The field of Renaissance studies is one of the oldest areas of historical inquiry, dating from the fifteenth century itself, which may partially explain its cultural impact on Western civilization ever since.An earlier version of this article was delivered at the CHODA Conference, Courtauld Institute, London, in July 2004. I am grateful for the very helpful contributions of Sophie White, and also the two anonymous readers for the journal of Fashion Theory for their insights and suggestions to thi

The Currency of Clothing

Ann Rosalind Jones and Peter Stallybrass

Source: Classic and Modern Writings on Fashion 2nd Edition 2009

Book chapter

The Broker (skorning to bee called Vsurer) will lend none money, at ten in the hundred, vpon bond or securitie, but (for sooth) Sir if you will bring a pawne worth double the summe you desire, and make a bill of Sale, you shall haue halfe, or sometimes the third of the value thereof … Item, deliuered to Mistris Spendthrift vpon a bill of Sale, the first of Ianuarie, 1618, for a Taffata Peticote, a Beuer Hat, Gold Band, Yellow Feather,

Venice and the Dress of Foreigners

Stella Mary Newton

Source: Classic and Modern Writings on Fashion 2nd Edition 2009

Book chapter

Masculine Apparel

Stephen Orgel

Source: Classic and Modern Writings on Fashion 2nd Edition 2009

Book chapter

it was not lawful for women to swear by Hercules, nor to enter into his temple: this was a punishment laid upon that sex, for the insolency of Queen Omphale over Hercules, in causing him so effeminately to serve her.AlexanderRoss, Mystagogus Poeticus, or the Muses Interpreter (London, 1648), pp. 169–70.

Between Clothing and Nudity

Mario Perniola

Source: Classic and Modern Writings on Fashion 2nd Edition 2009

Book chapter

In the figurative arts, eroticism appears as a relationship between clothing and nudity. Therefore, it is conditional on the possibility of movement – transit – from one state to the other. If either of these poles takes on a primary or essential significance to the exclusion of the other, then the possibility for this transit is sacrificed, and with it the conditions for eroticism. In such cases, either clothing or nudity becomes an absolute value.

The Upward Training of the Body from the Age of Chivalry to Courtly Civility

Georges Vigarello

Source: Classic and Modern Writings on Fashion 2nd Edition 2009

Book chapter

From the Middle Ages on, every failure of physical uprightness has been attributed to two main categories: the stigma of deformity, sanctioned by the attention given to strength and aesthetic qualities, and the lack of the proper deportment prescribed mainly by socialized ethics. In both cases, however, medieval comments were unpolished and hasty, even weak compared with those which would be made in the sixteenth century. The strongest and most valiant knight was lost if disabled – “he falls to t

The Florentine ‘Rigattieri’: Second Hand Clothing Dealers and the Circulation of Goods in the Renaissance

Carole Collier Frick

Source: Old Clothes, New Looks. Second Hand Fashion 2005

Book chapter

In the economy of Renaissance Florence, the textile and garment industry dominated the urban marketplace for consumer goods. In addition to the 909 household heads Franceschi found who listed some aspect of the woolen cloth business as their occupation at the turn of the fifteenth century, Herlihy and Klapisch-Zuber counted 866 clothiers in 1427 that identified themselves by some aspect of the clothing trade within the city.For the wool-workers see (Franceschi, 1993: tab. 20: 143). For other clot

Nor do not saw the air too much with your hand, thus, but use all gently; for in the very torrent, tempest, and as I may say the whirlwind of your passion, you must acquire and beget a temperance that may give it smoothness. (3.2. 4–7)

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