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Sunglasses

Vanessa Brown

Source: Fashion Photography Archive 2015

Article

By the late 1960s, sunglasses were a well-established fashion accessory, having accumulated numerous valuable meanings within Western visual culture: speed, technology, military power, celebrity, travel, glamour, and the outsider cool of black American jazzmen, beatniks, rap artists, cinematic gangsters, and femmes fatales. Subsequently, sunglasses became increasingly significant to fashion, providing lucrative licensing opportunities as well as creative potential to nuance clothes with desirable

Alexander McQueen for Givenchy, Fall/Winter 2000

Lydia Edwards

Source: Fashion Photography Archive 2015

Article

“I can’t be too literal with my references,” Alexander McQueen said in 2000, when asked to pinpoint the theme of a recent collection. “It’s a number of references culminating together to make one idea.” Nevertheless, with a researched family history dating back to the 1500s, McQueen always acknowledged that “Every part of my background comes from something, be it the Jacobites or the Huguenots,” and influences from Giovanni Bellini to André Courrèges can be glimpsed in his collections. The pieces

Dots in Fashion

Jo Turney

Source: Fashion Photography Archive 2015

Article

Spots, dots, spheres, circles, and even “splats” are central to the expression of fashion as fun. With reference to 1950s bobby-soxers and nostalgic soda fountains, child-like innocence, summer vacations, dance, and escapism in general, spotty fashion has, since the 1970s, embraced humor and playfulness. Yet, prior to this date, dots in fashion and in representation in general have negotiated a paradoxical relationship with taste, encompassing both the naive and the sophisticated, which has incre

Nineteenth-century Technology

Joy Spanabel Emery

Source: A History of the Paper Pattern Industry. The Home Dressmaking Fashion Revolution 2014

Book chapter

Inventors were experimenting with mechanical sewing by the mid-eighteenth century, but it was not until the mid-nineteenth century that a functioning, practical machine was invented by Barthélemy Thimonnier. In “A Brief History of the Sewing Machine,” Graham Forsdyke explains that Thimonnier’s machine was granted a French patent in 1830. By 1840, he had installed eighty of his machines in his factory for sewing uniforms for the French army. Parisian tailors, who feared the machine would put craft

Indonesia, Republik DIY

Brent Luvaas

Source: DIY Style. Fashion, Music and Global Digital Cultures 2012

Book chapter

Since gaining independence from the Dutch in 1949, the sprawling island nation of Indonesia has been, and continues to be, a decidedly tenuous union. Spread across some 17,000 islands in the South Pacific, the Indian Ocean, and the South China Sea, Indonesia is a country of incredible cultural, regional, and biological diversity. Its 233 million people, divided into more than two hundred distinct ethnic groups, practice an immense assortment of religions, from Hinduism to Protestantism and animis

Introduction: The DIY Ethos

Brent Luvaas

Source: DIY Style. Fashion, Music and Global Digital Cultures 2012

Book chapter

First and foremost, we have here a discourse that is authoritarian: one has to express oneself, one has to speak, communicate, cooperate, and so forth.

Future of Subcultural Body Style

Therèsa M. Winge

Source: Body Style 2012

Book chapter

Many Western subcultures contribute to and influence contemporary examples of fashion. The Hippie subculture influenced numerous fashion trends, such as embroidered jeans, shawls, and use of the peace symbol. The Punk subculture is credited with many 1980s fashion trends, such as distressed jeans, safety pin accessories, and band buttons or pins. During the past few decades, the Urban Tribal movement influenced contemporary body fashions with the use and display of body modifications, technologie

Issey Miyake

Bonnie English

Source: Japanese Fashion Designers. The Work and Influence of Issey Miyake, Yohji Yamamoto and Rei Kawakubo 2011

Book chapter

Clothes … speak many languages … and have to be seen on the outside … as well as felt on the inside.

Techno Textiles

Bonnie English

Source: Japanese Fashion Designers. The Work and Influence of Issey Miyake, Yohji Yamamoto and Rei Kawakubo 2011

Book chapter

While there are a number of monolithic factories in Japan, such as Toray, the largest textile company in the world, which are technically advanced and automated, the majority of operators are small and simple by comparison. Toray has expanded its base of synthetic fibres and textiles to include many other fields, such as plastics and chemicals, advanced composite materials, pharmaceutical and medical products, construction materials, housing, and engineering. Many of the smaller factories, includ

IT in the Clothing Industry

Céline Abecassis-Moedas

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Information technology (IT) in the clothing industry is one of the elements that allows the latest fashion trends from the catwalks to be transformed into mass-market products within days. In clothing manufacturing, it is important to distinguish between preassembly of garments (design, marker-making, or putting the patterns on the fabric, spreading the fabric, cutting, and bundling operations) and garment assembly. Most of the innovations in production and information technologies are taking pla

North American Influences on West European Dress

Rebecca Arnold

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

North America’s effect on West European fashion is often viewed only in relation to Hollywood and celebrity. However, its influence has been far more diverse, from technological inventions to leisure wear and the professionalization of the industry.

Fashion under Socialism

Djurdja Bartlett

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The relationship between dress and Socialism started in Soviet Russia following the 1917 Communist Revolution. When Soviet-style Socialism was introduced in East Europe in 1948, dress became an important ideological and practical issue in the countries under Soviet political control. However, the styles of garments, and the discourses in which they were embedded, were not homogeneous in the Soviet Union and the East European countries during the seventy-two years of Communist rule. Both similarit

The Wool Industry in Australia

Prudence Black and Anne Farren

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands 2010

Encyclopedia entry

That the wealth of Australia rode “on the sheep’s back” is a well-known expression. In particular, it has been Merino wool (a thick fine fleece suited to weaving into quality fabric) for the international and increasingly global clothing market that has been Australia’s most significant product. The Merino sheep has been selectively bred for over two hundred years and is recognized worldwide for its uniformly fine and soft fibers. While Australia is home to only a small proportion of the world’s

Disability, Its Effect on the Body, and the Clothing Perspective

Kate Carroll

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Global Perspectives 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Disability affects the body in various ways, which in turn affects clothing from a variety of perspectives. Clothing for people with disabilities has changed over time, from early attempts to accommodate physical disability into design to clothing that is being embedded with twenty-first-century technology to enhance quality of life. In the early twenty-first century retailers are selling everything from adaptive clothing to fashion-forward products. In the product development process, a variety

Textile Manufacture in Taiwan

Yu Cheng-Ping and Wu Chi-Jen

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Before the Qing dynasty (1644–1911) ceded Taiwan to Japan in 1895, Taiwan’s economy was based on agriculture. Its environment was not suitable for planting cotton or raising sheep. Other than domestic, self-sufficient textile production, there was no textile industry. The demand for textiles relied on imports from the mainland. This changed radically beginning in 1896 with the Japanese colonization of Taiwan. Taiwan’s textile industry can be divided into five periods: (1) Japanese colonial period

Headdress

Beverly Chico

Source: The Berg Companion to Fashion 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Hairnets may be the oldest headdresses worn by humans. A mammoth-ivory figurine dated circa 36,000 B.C.E. and found at Brassempouy (Las Landes), France, shows a human face with hair possibly braided and covered with what appears to be a netting. Bronze Age second millennium B.C.E. hairnets of horsehair using the sprang or twisted-thread technique were found in Borum Eshøj, Denmark, and are preserved in the National Museum, Copenhagen. Complementing long, unfitted robes, a fashionable silk hairnet

Accessories

Valerie Cumming

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

There is a debate about whether accessories are “essential” or “additional to dress.” From 1800 onwards, there are relatively few new accessories; some gradually disappeared, and others became increasingly important, their roles reflecting a changing world. Many times those actually producing these goods could themselves afford only basic, practical items. Certain crafts were more suited to mechanized production—knitted goods like stockings and printed fabrics—others, like millinery, beaded bags,

Textile and Apparel Industries at the Turn of the Millennium

Kitty G. Dickerson

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. The United States and Canada 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Behind the runway shows and other glitz and glamour of the fashion industry are the textile and apparel firms that churn out the garments and other textile products for U.S. consumers. These are companies that have to deal with serious realities of profit and survival in an intensely competitive environment. Just as fashions are transformed over the years with hemlines that rise and fall and silhouettes that change, the industries and companies that produce the fashions have been completely trans

Paris as a Fashion City

Martine Elzingre

Translated by Pierre Hodgson

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Paris fashions—clothes, lingerie, accessories, and jewelry, together with other beauty products such as hairstyles, fragrances, and cosmetics—have come to dominate the world beyond the borders of France, as well as beyond Europe and indeed outside the West. In Paris itself, the two arts of dressing and seduction have thrived because innumerable ideas and techniques for applying those ideas have constantly been discovered—a continual process of experimentation.

Wearable Technology

Leopoldina Fortunati

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Global Perspectives 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The history of dress is a history not only of creativity and aesthetics, imagination and communication, style and taste, but also of technology. Technology is the silent but indispensable mate of wearing apparel and fashion. The history of dress-related technologies shows the great debt that fashion and wearing apparel have to technology. The body, too, has its technological aspects: From primordial times it has, in fact, been seen as a natural machine. This vision of the body as a natural machin

Influence of the Web

Leopoldina Fortunati and Manuela Farinos

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Global Perspectives 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Web 2.0 platforms have deeply changed fashion communication. Online forums and, later, blogs and social networks have become increasingly common and have achieved a pivotal role in driving new fashion trends. They represent a possibility for ordinary people to participate in the fashion scene; share their suggestions, opinions, and comments; and thus contribute to the construction of new fashion discoursivity. Whereas scholars have focused on fashion bloggers, there is little research on the anti

Fashion on Smartphones

Leopoldina Fortunati and Yao Nie

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Global Perspectives 2010

Encyclopedia entry

This article investigates fashion mobile applications that are mapped according to their features: content typology, number and average scores of ratings, as well as number of reviews posted by users and their content. Second, user behavior is compared between the United States and China, the two biggest smartphone markets in the world. Fashion mobile applications have an indirect relationship with the fashion system and millions of potential customers. In these applications, in fact, the relatio

Future of Fashion

Donna Ghelerter

Source: The Berg Companion to Fashion 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The Apparel Industry

Jan Hilger

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Before the mid-nineteenth century garments were produced manually. With the invention of sewing machines, mass manufacturing became possible. In just over 160 years, business complexity increased from one-man companies, dominated by artisan tailors, to multinational corporations. In Europe and in the United States the first apparel factories following the Fordist model were established. A new unskilled workforce replaced skilled craftsmen. With growing distance from the consumer and decreasing in

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