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Azerbaijan—Urban Dress, the 1920s to the Twenty-First Century

Djurdja Bartlett

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The Azeri (Azerbaijani ethnicity) aristocracy and the nascent bourgeoisie and intelligentsia gradually introduced elements of Western styles into their dress beginning in the mid-nineteenth century, when the region was still part of the Russian tsarist empire. Europeanized dress was one of the elements within a wider discourse that challenged the old way of life and its long-held traditions and proposed modernization in all the fields of society. A new role for women was on the agenda of secular

Russian Constructivism in Dress and Textiles

Djurdja Bartlett

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Constructivism was embedded in immense political and social changes brought about by the Bolshevik Revolution. Its appearance in 1919 resulted from the merger of two parallel but very different artistic movements: futurism and proletkult. While futurism rebelled against bourgeois culture and lifestyle in a series of anarchistic practices, proletkult was a politically motivated mass movement that promoted a separate culture for the proletariat. In this context, for the constructivists, fashion was

Wearing Ethnic Identity: Power of Dress

Uradyn E. Bulag

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

From the earliest written records, dress in China has been used to signify a political order and to mark the boundary between civilization and barbarity. China has gone through scores of dynastic changes, each producing distinct dress codes. For more than half of its history, part or all of China has been conquered and ruled by Inner Asian pastoral nomads; as a result, the history of dress in China is fraught with identity problems. Chinese civilizational imperatives dictate that the people of a

Belarus

Hanna Chuchvaha

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus 2010

Encyclopedia entry

In the thirteenth century, Belarusian ethnic territory became an independent part of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. Developing handicraft industries and foreign commerce within the duchy in the sixteenth century favored new foreign garments. During the seventeenth century, the wealthy adopted West European, predominantly French, fashion. In 1795, the eastern territories of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, including the Belarusian territories, were annexed to the Russian Empire. In the nineteenth cent

Soviet Underwear

Julia Demidenko

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Soviet-era underwear—both its manufacturing and consumption—were determined not only by fashion but also, to a great extent, by the ideology and political goals of the state and its economic priorities at different stages. As a result of the revolution of February 1917, underwear became simpler, and its assortment was reduced. Due to the devastation that followed the October Revolution of 1917 and the civil war, people continued to wear prerevolutionary styles of underwear.

Polish Urban Dress in Transition from Socialism to Post-Socialism

Bogna Dowgiałło and Agnieszka Burska

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Material poverty and dramatically changed social structures influenced most Polish dress in the immediate postwar period. Because ethnic minorities had been either deported or exterminated and because both the Nazis and the Soviets had taken steps to eliminate the prewar elite, Polish society had become nearly homogenous.

Cameroon

Christraud M. Geary

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Africa 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Cameroon blends West and Central Africa, extending from the Atlantic Coast to Lake Chad, bordering on six countries. Dress and ways to manipulate the body vary widely among the population. Religion and history influenced choices to adopt, maintain, or discard forms of dress. Indigenous African religions with annual and life-cycle ceremonies, accompanied by masked rituals in some regions, demanded ritual dress and costumes. Throughout the nineteenth century, local materials were used in the produc

Soviet State Cosmetic Company TEZHE in the 1930s

Jukka Gronow

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The Soviet culture of cosmetics was born in the middle of the 1930s. A major reorientation took place in the cultural policy of the USSR that had a direct impact on the consumption habits of Soviet citizens. This turn coincided with the final consolidation of Stalin’s power in the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. Stalin’s slogan from the year 1936, “life has become better, life has become more joyous, comrades,” summarized this new cultural mood. It formed a sharp contrast to the previous off

Czech Urban Dress, 1948 to Twenty-First Century

Konstantina Hlaváková

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus 2010

Encyclopedia entry

After the Communists seized power in Czechoslovakia in 1948, political change affected all areas of social life. The Communist regime considered fashion and styles of dress as effective ideological instruments through which it could exercise its control of society. The nationalization and liquidation of prospering small firms and the destruction of a network of services that had grown up over decades on the basis of natural need caused immediate economic problems. The new production structure and

Ukraine

Natalie Kononenko

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Ukraine is an ancient land of great natural resources that has supported human habitation since prehistoric times. Yet it has existed as an independent state only since 1991. Ukraine, Russia, and Belarus all developed from Rus’, a conglomeration of city-states headed by Kyiv (the Ukrainian spelling of the city otherwise known as Kiev), the capital of modern Ukraine. This state, which is often referred to as Kyivan Rus’, flourished in the tenth to twelfth centuries. After the collapse of Rus’ the

Armenia

Gary Lind-Sinanian and Susan Lind-Sinanian

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Historically and geographically, the land of Armenia has been identified for the last 2,600 years with the great plateau in eastern Asia Minor and the adjacent Transcaucasus Mountains, a vast (100,000-square-mile or 260,000-square-kilometer) highland of rolling hills and steep mountain valleys. Most of the Armenian population in this area was deported or exterminated during World War I, and the area identified in the early twenty-first century politically as the Republic of Armenia actually compr

Antifashion in East Asian Dress: Power of Uniforms

Brian J. McVeigh

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Fashion in East Asia reveals historical trajectories following the same path as Euro–American modernities. Modernization underpins the fashion-oriented consumerism visible today in Japan, China, Taiwan, and Hong Kong, accounting for the interplay between fashion, counter-fashion, and antifashion. Counter-fashion is concerned with an interest in change and avant-garde styles. It may be associated with dissent, protest, or ridicule. Antifashion (commonly confused with counter-fashion) means styles

Lithuania: Urban Dress

Taira Milušauskaité

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus 2010

Encyclopedia entry

In the first half of the twentieth century, Lithuania experienced the same economic and social changes as other countries of Central and East Europe. Features of capitalism were strengthening and bourgeois society was developing, which influenced fashion dispersion. Light industry had developed in Vilnius, with the opening of sewing shops, studios, workshops, clothing shops, and beauty salons. Fashionable clothes became mass-produced and mass-consumed goods. Railways allowed the growth of import

Bulgaria: Urban Dress

Mary Neuburger

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The story of Bulgarian urban dress begins with the slow but steady process of Bulgarian urbanization in the late eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. Bulgaria had been under Ottoman rule since the fourteenth century, a period during which urban centers in the regions that make up Bulgaria in the twenty-first century had a profoundly mixed population—primarily Turkish-speaking Muslims; Greek, Vlach (Romanian), and Armenian-speaking Christians; Roma and Sephardic- (Judeo-Spanish) speaking Jews. Sla

Tallinn House of Fashion under Socialism

Anu Ojavee

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Professional fashion design in Estonia started in the decades preceding World War II. Fashion study at the State Applied Art School (now the Estonian Academy of Arts) started in 1940 under Natalie Mei. Under Soviet rule Estonia’s economy and culture were thoroughly reshaped. From 1957 until the end of the Soviet Union in 1991, garment design was concentrated in Tallinna Moemaja (Tallinn House of Fashion), where top Estonian designers and tailors created samples for the garment industry. Even duri

Polish Youth Fashion under Socialism

Anna Pelka

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus 2010

Encyclopedia entry

After World War II, the Polish United Workers’ Party came to power in Poland. For the Communist authorities, educating young people in the Marxist and Leninist spirit was of particular importance. A Communist teenager was obliged to strengthen the system and the state as well as engage in activism through youth organizations. Clothing was also an element revealing the teen’s position in society. The government-promoted school or union uniform played an educational and social role, and its standar

Estonia: Urban Dress

Reet Piiri

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus 2010

Encyclopedia entry

In the thirteenth century, Estonia was divided among German nobility, but no German peasants moved there, so a clear ethnic divide developed along class lines. Clothing was produced in guilds, and also at home, especially (but not only) in poorer households. The fifteenth century marked the advent of the décolleté, hoop skirt, flared sleeves, and gold and silver embroidery. Although the Reformation reached Estonia in 1523, the courtly clothing fashions of Catholic Spain exerted an influence. The

Textile and Garment Manufacture and Retailing in China

Dong Shen

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

China’s industrial revolution started at the end of the nineteenth century and the beginning of the twentieth century. The leading sectors that fueled the industrial revolution included mining, iron production, and textile manufacturing. From the beginning, the textile industry played an important role, with major production centers in Shanghai, Wuhan, Guangzhou, Changsha, and Tianjin turning out large quantities of cotton fiber, yarn, and fabrics.

The Geographic and Cultural Regions

Lise Skov

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Because there are no clear geographical borders between Europe and Asia, or East and West Europe, definitions of these regions have shifted historically. Divisions are essentially political, accentuated by profound changes following the end of the Cold War. Cultural diversity is a European characteristic, impacting significantly on dress and the fashion industry in the twentieth century. The clothing materials native to West Europe are wool, linen, fur, and leather. Until the Middle Ages all clot

Cheongsam: Chinese One-Piece Dress

Valerie Wilson Trower

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The “Suzie Wong” dress or qipao, as the cheongsam is also known, has its origins in Chinese ethnic dress. It is possible to trace a history of the development of the cheongsam from the Chinese gown or changshan, or long informal robe worn by Han Chinese men, and the changfu, or informal robes worn by the Manchu, the last rulers of premodern China, to the current day.

The Concept of Modesty in Socialist Dress and Grooming

Olga Vainshtein

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The concept of modesty in Soviet fashion was part of the disciplinary code imposed by ideological regulations regarding one’s appearance. A unitary aesthetic originating in the ideology of collectivism codified social behavior, concepts of propriety, and thoroughly normative notions about beauty. The requirement of modesty implicated an attitude of general restraint and moderation in both body and dress: undecorated and functional clothes, dark colors, few accessories, reserved manners. The perfe

Estonia, Subcultural Dress

Ellen Värv

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus 2010

Encyclopedia entry

In Soviet Estonia, the activity of young people was subject to the control of the ruling ideology, but information about the activities of young people abroad nonetheless reached their Estonian counterparts. This led to the imitation of Western youth culture and the formation of subcultural dress practices by Estonian youth.

Film and Fashion in Post-Mao China

Juanjuan Wu and Yao Chen

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

All of the streets would be dyed blue from 5:30 AM to 7:30 AM every day in China, because millions of people wearing blue coats go to work by bicycle. All of the roads of the whole city seem to be occupied by bicycles. You can imagine eight million Chinese riding bikes pass you at that moment.

Overview: Han Chinese

Juanjuan Wu and John E. Vollmer

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Today, the Han people represent over ninety-two percent of the population in China. Han populations are dispersed worldwide. Their name comes from the Han dynasty (206 b.c.e.–220 c.e.), the first period of expanded empire in East Asia. Although no dress from the early period survives, representations in bronze or jade indicate that elites wore elaborate patterned robes. Figures that are apparently servants are less ornately dressed. The oldest Chinese writings mention the importance of dress in d

Soviet Socialist Dress, 1917 to 1990

Larissa Zakharova

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Soviet Socialist dress refers to two spheres: a political one defining the Soviet regime that existed from October 1917 to 1991 and a geographical location that covers the territory of the former Russian Empire under Bolshevik rule. So it includes not only clothing created and worn in Soviet Russia (Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic) but also urban dress from the republics of the USSR. The Bolsheviks’ project in the field of clothing was to create a distinctive and unique Soviet Social

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