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Masquerade and Masked Balls

Ann Ilan Alter

Source: The Berg Companion to Fashion 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Caribbean Islanders

José F. Blanco

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. The United States and Canada 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Caribbean immigrants have contributed greatly to the multicultural and multilingual diversity of the United States and Canada for a number of years. Often grouped either with other Hispanics or with African Americans, Caribbean people are actually part of a complex mosaic of cultures, languages, and dress practices. The Caribbean, named after its main pre-Columbian inhabitants, the Carib, has been shaped by the encounter of several cultures, including native groups such as the Puerto Rican Taínos

Festivals Pacific-Style

Susan Cochrane

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Global Perspectives 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Examples of ceremonial dress can be found around the world. In the Pacific, festivals as ceremonies celebrate Pacific life and occur in local, regional, national, and international contexts. At the community level, every school has its culture day, every church its fete, and every family and clan celebrates events in the life cycle. On the regional level, provincial governments organize festivals or “shows” to bring the communities under their jurisdiction together to celebrate unity and diversit

Masquerade Dress

Cynthia Cooper

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. The United States and Canada 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Masquerade rituals and entertainments popular in North America were initially derived from European tradition and fashionable practices. Mummering and Mardi Gras, both forms of masked celebration that had roots in the Middle Ages in Europe, took on their own unique character in the specific regions of Canada and the United States where they persisted. When the European vogue for public masquerade declined at the beginning of the nineteenth century in favor of private fancy dress balls and parties

Overview: Hong Kong

Valery M. Garrett

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Until the late twentieth century the British colony of Hong Kong remained detached from events in China, especially in the rural New Territories. Farmers, wearing traditional dress, grew rice and vegetables, while fishermen sold their catch in local ports. Working people wore hard-wearing, dark clothing suitable to their tough lives. Most wore practical jackets with loose trousers, hemp being a popular fabric. Symbolism is important in Chinese folklore, and children’s clothing was embroidered wit

Festival Dress in Japan

Gloria Granz Gonick

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Matsuri, the Japanese term translated as “festivals,” are days set aside by a community for the purpose of honoring and interacting with its kami, or Shinto protector deity or deities. Shinto is considered the indigenous religion of the Japanese islands, and matsuri are Shinto events. Most matsuri are held at intermittent intervals during the calendar year, dictated by local traditions and by the felt need to obtain the support and protection of the kami for the coming period. Ritual interaction

American Royalty: Texas Style

Michaele Hayne

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. The United States and Canada 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Americans, in a country founded on a rejection of monarchy, are fascinated by royalty, as evidenced by the plethora of queens found everywhere from kindergarten rooms to senior citizen centers. Community festivals and state fairs often feature the crowning of young women as queens surrounded by royal courts. The queens and duchesses of Texas, which has more than its share of faux royalty, wear everything from Czech traditional dress as Miss Westfest to elaborate costumes created by a professional

Fancy Dress

Anthea Jarvis

Source: The Berg Companion to Fashion 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The morally questionable masquerade became unfashionable by 1820, but European society’s love of fancy dress continued. To accord with the new mood of decorum, fancy balls became the fashion, given either in private houses or as large-scale civic fund-raising events. Masks disappeared, and costumes were based on historical characters (many from Shakespeare’s plays or Sir Walter Scott’s novels), Turkish and Greek dress inspired by Byron’s poems, or the peasant dress of Spain, Italy, and Switzerlan

Historical Evidence: Japan

Alan Kennedy

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

In no other civilization has historical dress been so carefully preserved and documented as in Japan. This unique approach stems from its ancient tradition of above-ground storage. The earliest, most important costumes surviving above ground in Japan comprise nine patchwork Buddhist robes, preserved in a temple complex founded in the eighth century c.e. Even foreign non-Buddhist robes can be found in Japanese Buddhist temples. Various sixteenth-century dragon robes, gifted from the Chinese court,

Tahitian Tattoos

Makiko Kuwahara

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Tatau is permanent tattoo marking on the body, a term used here to describe Tahitian tattoo motifs. The term tattoo refers to Euro-American tattoos and the process of making these designs. As it is significant for Tahitians to differentiate their motifs from others, the terms tatau and tattoo are both used, and the term tatau/tattoo will indicate traditional motifs made with Western methods. Once a person puts ink on the skin, he or she will live with the motifs, designs, or words that the ink de

Carnival Dress

Babatunde Lawal

Source: The Berg Companion to Fashion 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Queer Dress in Australia

Peter McNeil

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The history of queer dress in Australia resides in the unpublished documentation and memories of gay, lesbian, and transgender people. Changing understandings of sexual practice have affected queer dress codes and bodily appearance. Australia’s queer history extends back to convict days, when the social concept of homosexuality was nonexistent, and further back to same-sex rituals and relationships forming part of some indigenous cultures. Most surviving evidence of queer coteries is metropolitan

Fancy Dress: African Masquerade in Coastal Ghana

Courtnay Micots

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Africa 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Fancy Dress is a lively secular masquerade performed on the coast of Ghana, West Africa. The majority of the young men and women who participate identify themselves as Fante, an Akan subgroup dominating the Central Region. Members from Effutu, Ahanta, Ga, and other coastal communities are also involved. In the early twenty-first century, Fancy Dress has become an integral part of local celebrations such as Easter, Christmas, New Year’s Day, harvest festivals, and members’ funerals. Fancy Dress st

Masquefest 2012

Courtnay Micots

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Africa 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Pacific Street Styles in Auckland

Giles Peterson and Billie Lythberg

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands 2010

Encyclopedia entry

A moko with a kilt…a “Kalo and Fried Corned-Beef” (KFC) T-shirt…tapa-printed hoodies worn with lavalavas … a tupenu with clogs … the hint of a pe’a above jeans … urban Pacific street style brings a distinctly Aotearoa (New Zealand)–Pacific flavor to international trends and labels, fusing together elements of the local and the global, the high-tech and the handcrafted, Pacific motifs and multinational branding, haute couture and factory standard issue. Particularly associated with Auckland, known

Carnival

Lidia Sciama

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

As anthropologists have found, people’s desire to abandon their workaday persona and temporarily adopt a different identity seems near universal. Carnival offers a ritual framework for people to act out their desires for alternative selves. Hierarchies are temporarily upturned; by acting as a safety valve, such reversals do not permanently change the social structure but reassert its validity at the end of the Carnival season. The Venice Carnival (for which the first written reference dates back

Muharram and Dress

Ashgar Seyed-Gohrab

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Central and Southwest Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

National and religious festivals serve as visible signs of renewal, initiation rituals, reenactments of the oath of the community, and reminders of particular identities. To indicate these aspects of a festival, people dress themselves in special attire, depending on the nature of the festival. Muharram is one of the most eminent festivals of the Shiites.

Ceremonial and Festival Costumes

Fred T. Smith

Source: The Berg Companion to Fashion 2010

Encyclopedia entry

A rite of passage is a common ceremony that involves a transition from one status or condition to another. For an individual, these include birth, puberty, marriage, and death. Scholars usually divide this type of ritual into three stages: separation, a transitional or liminal one, and rein-corporation; the latter two are most often associated with distinctive dress. For a community, annual rites of passage mark seasonal changes or cycles of renewal and regeneration. Individual and community rite

Pacific Sisters: Urban Pacific Art, Fashion, and Performance

Feeonaa Wall

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Under the banner “Pacific Sisters,” a group of fashion designers, artists, performers, and musicians based in Aotearoa (New Zealand) began working together in the early 1990s. Of predominantly mixed Polynesian (a subgroup of Pacific peoples, including Māori, the first nation peoples of Aotearoa) and European heritage, their work has responded to the unique multicultural urban environment of Tamaki Makaurau (Auckland), home to the world’s largest urban population of Pacific peoples. The group’s dr

Slovakia: Ethnic Dress

Patricia Williams

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Slovakia is a mountainous landlocked country in Central Europe, slightly larger than Switzerland. Slovaks have retained an enduring sense of their ethnicity, as manifested in the preservation of the Slovak language despite a turbulent history of foreign control and deprivation. They were under Hungarian and Austro-Hungarian rule from the tenth century until 1918, but, although their territory was called Upper Hungary, Slovaks never identified themselves as Hungarian, maintaining their Slovak iden

Society and Festivals

Jacob Burckhardt

Source: Classic and Modern Writings on Fashion 2nd Edition 2009

Book chapter

Sight, Sound, and Sentiment in Greek Village Dress

Linda Welters

Source: Dress Sense. Emotional and Sensory Experiences of the Body and Clothes 2007

Book chapter

Overview of the Caribbean

Steeve O. Buckridge

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Latin America and the Caribbean 2005

Encyclopedia entry

Despite a shared history and similar patterns of development, the Caribbean is one of the most complex, culturally diverse regions on the globe, a result of the vast numbers of people arriving there from all over the world through the centuries. This diversity generated new cultural systems unique to the area. Consequently, the people of the Caribbean represent various ethnicities and speak several languages, from Spanish, French, Dutch, and English to indigenous and Creole tongues, including Jam

Mexican Headwear

Beverly Chico

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Latin America and the Caribbean 2005

Encyclopedia entry

Within the territory known as Mexico, there existed a dramatic division between headwear worn by indigenous tribes prior to, and then after, the Spanish conquest of the 1500s. This sudden break was most evident when huge feathered headdresses worn by the ruling elite Aztec and Maya kings and warriors disappeared, to be replaced by European wigs and plumed hats on Spanish government officials, tall miters for Roman Catholic Church hierarchy, and metallic helmets on soldier-conquistadors. The desig

Brazilian Fashion Designers

Elizabeth Kutesko

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Latin America and the Caribbean 2005

Encyclopedia entry

A new generation of Brazilian fashion designers in the late twentieth and early twenty-first centuries have gained an international profile with conceptual designs that challenge Western presuppositions of what constitutes “Brazilian-ness.” While earlier Brazilian fashion innovators tended to copy and edit Western fashion designs, emulating Western conceptions of beauty and good taste, the work of designers such as Alexander Herchcovitch, Ronaldo Fraga, Karlla Girotto, Jum Nakao, Isabela Capeto,

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