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Multiple Meanings of the ‘Hijab’ in Contemporary France

Malcolm D. Brown

Source: Dressed to Impress. Looking the Part 2011

Book chapter

The affaire du foulard first came to prominence in the autumn of 1989, shortly after France had celebrated the bicentenary of the Revolution, when three Muslim schoolgirls in the town of Creil, not far from Paris, were expelled for wearing the hijab, and refusing to remove it. In so doing, they were judged to have infringed secular Republican principles, or, more accurately, the principle of laïcité, which had been developed from the ideas of the Revolution, and was held to be an important guaran

Azerbaijan—Urban Dress, the 1920s to the Twenty-First Century

Djurdja Bartlett

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The Azeri (Azerbaijani ethnicity) aristocracy and the nascent bourgeoisie and intelligentsia gradually introduced elements of Western styles into their dress beginning in the mid-nineteenth century, when the region was still part of the Russian tsarist empire. Europeanized dress was one of the elements within a wider discourse that challenged the old way of life and its long-held traditions and proposed modernization in all the fields of society. A new role for women was on the agenda of secular

The Shawl and the Head Cover

Rosemary Crill

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. South Asia and Southeast Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

A draped, uncut length of cloth has been the basis of Indian male and female dress since the earliest times. This draped cloth has taken many forms, with the turban, sari, and dhoti having been the major components of dress across India for centuries. The focus on wrapped, untailored lengths of cloth altered with the arrival of the Kushans in the second century b.c.e. and in the wake of closer contacts with Central Asia through migrations and trade. Later, under the influence of Muslim culture fr

Afghan Dress and the Diaspora

M. Catherine Daly

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Central and Southwest Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The rich cultural heritage of Afghanistan is expressed through its material culture and dress forms and practices. Whether living as internally displaced people (IDP) within Afghanistan or as resettled refugees and immigrants in the Afghan diaspora, the wearing of Afghan dress is a visual and material expression of gender, ethnicity, nationality, and religion, which serves to unify Afghan people. Afghanistan is home to more than thirty documented languages. Multiple terms for the same or similar

Dress from the Gulf States: Bahrain, Kuwait, Qatar, United Arab Emirates

Fadwa El Guindi and Wesam al-Othman

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Central and Southwest Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The Khalij (Arab Gulf) dress that is characteristic of Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar, and the Emirates shares the core code underlying dress and some aspects of form with Arab-Islamic dress in general. In the contemporary Arab Gulf region the tendency to mark gender by dress is quite dramatic. In Qatar, for example, women (young and old) dress in black and men (young and old) in white. Both sexes wear long clothing with long sleeves and wear head covers. But these clothing items have different referents

Dress in Egypt in the Twentieth Century

Betty Wass El-Wakil

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Africa 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Egypt has been ruled by foreign powers seeking to control its resources for much of the country’s history. The governing powers throughout history represented the elite, who served as a major influence on styles and fashions in clothing and dress. From the late eighteenth century onward, the French and the British had been attempting to displace the Turkish Ottoman rulers (1517–1798) and gain control over Egypt. The French under Napoleon invaded and occupied Egypt from 1798 to 1805. The Ottoman s

Islam and Islamically Correct Dress (Hijab)

Fadwa El Guindi

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Central and Southwest Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

As a term and dress form, Islamic dress came into common usage in the mid-1970s, when college youth in urban centers of Egypt began to appear in what they called Islamic dress, a practice that gradually spread internally in Egypt across cities and social strata, and elsewhere in the Arab and Islamic world. The manifestation of the emergent Islamic movement in the form of a new type of dress and associated comportment among male and female college youth took society and even the religious authorit

The Abayeh in Qatar

Christina Lindholm

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Central and Southwest Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The abayeh is a contemporary long cloaklike garment worn by most Qatari women outside the home. The wearing of the abayeh and the shayla, the head covering, is not legally enforced, and both garments can be modified and decorated by the individual. While many own and wear Western dress at home, abayehs are willingly retained as a sign of respect for the woman’s culture, heritage, family honor, and gendered place in society. Most Qatari females adopt the abayeh and shayla at the onset of puberty.

Politics and Dress: Women’s Religious Head Covers

Christina Lindholm

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Global Perspectives 2010

Encyclopedia entry

At first glance, politics and dress seem to be strange bedfellows. On closer study, however, it becomes clear that a wide variety of agendas are enacted through the medium of cloth and clothing, and none are more heated than debates on women’s head covers. Abraham Maslow situated clothing on the bottom tier of his hierarchy of needs based on the physiological requirements of people of all cultures from time immemorial. Throughout history examples abound from most countries of how humans have parl

Veils and the Hajj

Elisha P. Renne

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Global Perspectives 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Veils have historically been associated with women’s performance of hajj (the pilgrimage to Mecca) in Saudi Arabia, as documented in the travel narratives of attending pilgrims. While pilgrimage to Mecca prior to the mid-twentieth century entailed extended, sometimes lifelong, travel over land and by sea, airplanes have allowed many more Muslim men and women from around the world to perform hajj since the 1950s.This increase has exposed Muslim women to many different styles of veils worn in count

Hijab Fashions in Northern Nigeria

Elisha P. Renne

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Global Perspectives 2010

Encyclopedia entry

High Heels

Rebecca Shawcross

Source: The Berg Companion to Fashion 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Heels were first introduced in the 1590s. In the 1660s Louis XIV of France made high heels fashionable for men. As a relatively short man he coupled high heels with tall wigs to create an illusion of height. Royal customization gave rise to red heels, a symbol of status and power, initially only worn by those in the royal court. High red heels continued to be fashionable into the 1770s.

Introduction

Emma Tarlo

Source: Visibly Muslim. Fashion, Politics, Faith 4th Edition 2010

Book chapter

The topic of Muslim women’s appearances is by no means a blank canvas. Rather, it has the quality of a familiar painting, so often reproduced that representation gets confused for reality and we fail to see what might have been left out of the picture or how things could have been painted differently. Representations of Muslim women are dominated by one single all-consuming image, word and concept—the veil. This word which does not correspond directly to any clear-cut Arabic or Islamic category,F

Biographies in Dress

Emma Tarlo

Source: Visibly Muslim. Fashion, Politics, Faith 4th Edition 2010

Book chapter

Rezia Wahid’s biography demonstrates the breadth and combination of ideological, sensual and visual resources on which she has drawn in the development of her personal aesthetic in dress and textile art. It is an aesthetic born chiefly out of the creative interplay of distant memories of Bangladesh and concrete experiences of Britain and Islam.

Geographies of Hijab

Emma Tarlo

Source: Visibly Muslim. Fashion, Politics, Faith 4th Edition 2010

Book chapter

A hairdressing salon in a quiet residential neighbourhood of North West London may not seem an obvious place for thinking about hijab, for this is a neighbourhood more noticeable for the whiteness of its inhabitants than for its multiculturalism. But hairdressing salons are interesting places for the easy flow of interaction and conversation they encourage. What follows is an account of how, why and to what effect the hijab became a topic of interest and concern in one particular neighbourhood sa

Navigations of Style

Emma Tarlo

Source: Visibly Muslim. Fashion, Politics, Faith 4th Edition 2010

Book chapter

The hijab, as we have already seen, is fraught with contradictory interpretations and expectations and nowhere is this more apparent than in hijabi women’s own discourses on the subject. On the one hand many are anxious to specify that the hijab ‘is just a piece of cloth’—a simple bit of fabric wrapped around the head. They are therefore highly critical of the so-called fetishization of hijab in the media. On the other hand a huge amount of time, energy and reflection is spent discussing personal

Diversity Contested

Emma Tarlo

Source: Visibly Muslim. Fashion, Politics, Faith 4th Edition 2010

Book chapter

In September 2002, Shabina Begum, a thirteen-year-old British Muslim girl of Bengali origin, arrived at Denbigh High School in Luton where she was a pupil, dressed not in the school uniform but a jilbab and hijab. She was accompanied by two young men, one of whom was her brother, who spoke to the assistant Head Teacher of the school, insisting that Shabina should be allowed to wear her jilbab in school as this was the only garment that met her religious requirements. He talked of human rights and

Covering Concerns

Emma Tarlo

Source: Visibly Muslim. Fashion, Politics, Faith 4th Edition 2010

Book chapter

Russell Square tube station, 9.30 a.m., June 2007. A robed figure steps into the tube train. She is wearing a long free-flowing black abaya which sweeps from her shoulders to the floor. Her head is bound with a tight black headscarf, her face covered with a black face veil (niqab), tied at the back. Her eyes briefly scan her surroundings through the narrow slit of her niqab. She carries a large and noticeably stylish grey bag containing books and a file. She is probably a student. A middle-aged m

Hijab Online

Emma Tarlo

Source: Visibly Muslim. Fashion, Politics, Faith 4th Edition 2010

Book chapter

A brief glance at the homepage of thehijabshop.com gives a flavour of the nature of this commercial venture. The consumer is confronted by a range of different products and techniques of display. At the time of writing, this consisted of a new range of trendy modern jilbabs displayed on live models without heads, Cindy van den Bremen’s sports hijabs worn by professional models, the ‘pick of the day’ hijab displayed on a plastic mannequin of Caucasian complexion, a selection of fancy hijab pins, a

Islamic Fashion Scape

Emma Tarlo

Source: Visibly Muslim. Fashion, Politics, Faith 4th Edition 2010

Book chapter

If there is one factor that the first generation of British Islamic fashion designers share in common it is an understanding of the clothing dilemmas of young Muslims living in the West who wish to dress in ways that are fashionable and modern on the one hand and faithful and modest on the other. It is a dilemma which most designers learned, not so much through savvy market research and economic foresight, as from their own highly personal experiences of being unable to find clothes which express

Iranian Urban Dress

Gillian Vogelsang-Eastwood

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Central and Southwest Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The nineteenth century in Iran was a period of dramatic changes with respect to urban dress; the style of garments worn at the beginning of the century was totally different from that at the end and in the following era. A major factor in this change were the policies of Westernization followed by Iranian rulers from the early nineteenth century on. Under Mohammed Shah (r. 1834–1848), for instance, the British military specialist Sir Henry Rawlinson was employed to modernize the Iranian army on E

Reza Shah’s Dress Reforms in Iran

Gillian Vogelsang-Eastwood

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Central and Southwest Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Some of the most enduring and controversial legacies of the reign of Reza Shah Pahlavi, the shah of Iran from 1925 to 1941, were the changes he made in the dress of both men and women living in Iran. The repercussions of these changes can still be felt in the early twenty-first century.

The Chadari/Burqa of Afghanistan and Pakistan

Gillian Vogelsang-Eastwood

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Central and Southwest Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The Afghan chadari, or burqa as it is also known, has become a global icon, but particularly with the period of Taliban influence in Afghanistan (1994–2001). For many in the non-Muslim world the chadari symbolizes the oppression of women. Some specialists in Afghan history insist that the garment should be called a chadari, not a burqa, the Arab name that seems to be associated with Islamic fundamentalism. From the medieval period onward it appears that these garments were primarily worn by urban

Face Veils

Gillian Vogelsang-Eastwood

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Central and Southwest Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

A face veil is a separate garment that is used to cover all or part of the face, usually that of a woman. Ethnic and cultural origins often play a prominent role in whether a woman wears a face veil, and what type. Some groups have insisted on women being veiled because their presence is a sexual distraction to men. Veiling is also used to indicate the physical status of a female, that is, to show if she is in the fertile phase of her life. In patriarchal societies, veiling is sometimes linked to

Hausa in Nigeria and Diaspora

Norma H. Wolff

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Africa 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The Hausa are spread across West Africa but are concentrated in the arid savanna regions of northwestern Nigeria and adjoining Niger, an area referred to as Hausaland. The Hausa language, spoken as a native tongue by an estimated twenty-two million people, is the most widely spoken language in sub-Saharan Africa and is a lingua franca to over fifty million. While basically an agricultural society, the Hausa are best known for their control over long-distance trade networks of West Africa. Because

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