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Balenciaga

Casey Mackenzie Johnson

Source: Fashion Photography Archive 2015

Designer Biography

Fortuny, Mariano

Gillion Carrara

Source: The Berg Companion to Fashion 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Fortuny’s garments and textiles fuse history, anthropology, and art. By blending various dyes he achieved luminous, unique colors. Resurrecting the ancient craft of pleating fabric, artistically symbolizing a reflection of the sun’s rays, Fortuny developed his own interpretation of this craft and registered his heated pleating device in 1909. Between 1901 and 1933 he registered twenty-two patents, all of which related to garments and printing methods. Prolific in artistic pursuits, he printed etc

Early History of Dress and Fashion in Italy and the Iberian Peninsula

Carmen Alfaro Giner and Maria Giuseppina Muzzarelli

Translated by Ana Alacovska

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Rock engravings in Valcamonica, Italy, indicate the use of looms and thus weaving in the second millennium b.c.e. Tunics were worn by both men and women during pre-Roman times in the Iberian Peninsula.Italian regions colonized by Greece in the eighth century b.c.e. were influenced by Hellenic fashion. The Roman royal period lasted from 753 to 509 b.c.e., followed by the republic and the empire. Clothing during the first two periods was largely austere, although wealth and refinement characterized

Rabanne, Paco

Lydia Kamitsis

Source: The Berg Companion to Fashion 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Rabanne’s drawing skills made it possible for him to enter the world of fashion as early as 1955; indeed, to finance his architecture studies, he regularly supplied drawings of handbags for Roger Model and shoes for Charles Jourdan until 1963. In 1959 Women’s Wear Daily published seven sketches of dresses signed “Franck Rabanne.” Though this was the first time the designer’s name appeared in public, he chose “Franck” because the number of letters in the first and last names totaled a lucky thirte

Balenciaga, Cristóbal

Lesley Ellis Miller

Source: The Berg Companion to Fashion 2010

Encyclopedia entry

While the reasons for Balenciaga’s departure from Spain in 1935 at the age of forty, and his subsequent establishment in Paris, are not clear, it is probable that the commercial and political situation in Europe contributed to his move. In the 1930s Paris was the fashion mecca not only for ambitious designers but also for the cosmopolitan women they dressed. The French government fostered couture and its ancillary trades because they were important national export industries. Subsidies encouraged

Equatorial Guinea

Enrique Okenve

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Africa 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The tiny central African country of Equatorial Guinea covers only 28,051 square kilometers (11,000 square miles). It is comprised of a few islands, of which Bioko—formerly known as Fernando Po—off the coast of Cameroon is the largest, and a 26,000-square-kilometer (10,000-square-mile) mainland territory known as Rio Muni nestled between Cameroon and Gabon. With European expansionism, these territories were ceded in 1778 from Portugal to Spain, but the Spaniards did not arrive until 1858. During t

Spain

Silvia Ventosa

Translated by Lucy Lawton

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The influence of Spanish dress on European fashions is concentrated in two periods: the period of court life of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries with the moda a la española (Spanish-style fashion), and that of the majos, members of the Madrid artistic scene at the end of the eighteenth century and during the nineteenth century. The stereotypical image of the Spanish was fixed around 1800, an image that emanated from the south, from Andalusia, and this stereotype still survives in the early

Venice and the Dress of Foreigners

Stella Mary Newton

Source: Classic and Modern Writings on Fashion 2nd Edition 2009

Book chapter

Regional Dress of Latin America in a European Context

Patricia Rieff Anawalt

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Latin America and the Caribbean 2005

Encyclopedia entry

A collision of cultures occurred at the time of Spain’s sixteenth-century conquest of the two great empires of the Americas, the Mesoamerican Aztecs of central Mexico and the Andean Inka of today’s Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia. Latin America’s present-day traditional dress—the distinctive, non-Western-style clothing still worn by many Central American and Andean Indians—is an amalgam of New World indigenous apparel and Spanish Colonial–period peasant attire: Two contrasting concepts of clothing con

Costa Rica

José F. Blanco

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Latin America and the Caribbean 2005

Encyclopedia entry

The earliest human settlements in Costa Rica probably date to between 12000 and 8000 b.c.e. Established sedentary villages appeared between 8000 and 4000 b.c.e., while organized cultures likely developed around 500 c.e. Basketry, twining, and netting date back to 5000 b.c.e., and loom weaving has been traced to around 1800 b.c.e. Jade carving was widely practiced in the area, but carvings were also created with quartz, serpentine, and slate. Metallurgical work in gold and copper was widespread. C

Spanish Influences in Maya Clothing of Guatemala

Olga Arriola de Geng

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Latin America and the Caribbean 2005

Encyclopedia entry

With the arrival of Spanish colonization, the Maya of Guatemala—mainly the men, because they were in closer contact with the colonial Spanish world—were forced to modify their clothing. The new garments were copied and adapted from Spanish fashion, which was worn in those days by farmers, craftsmen, and other members of the working class who had arrived from Spain. The men adopted the shirt and the zaragüelles or breeches (zaragüelles are a type of wide breeches, used in Valencia and Murcia, in w

Camisas Nuevas: Style and Uniformity in the Falange Española 1933–43

Mary Vincent

Source: Fashioning the Body Politic. Dress, Gender, Citizenship 2002

Book chapter

This blue shirt was to become crucial to the party’s identity. Yet, this clothing of the Falange – so dramatic in the visual evidence of the period – goes almost unmentioned in historical studies.This reflects a more general lack of attention; Graham and Labanyi (1995) has nothing on dress or fashion while Rodgers (1999) has a single entry. Adopting a shirt as party or militia uniform was, of course, a self-conscious homage to Italian fascism (Pemartín 1941: 44–5). It meant action: wearing that s

Christianity, Cloth and Dress in the Andes

Lynn A. Meisch

Source: Undressing Religion. Commitment and Conversion from a Cross-Cultural Perspective 2000

Book chapter

The territory that constituted the Inca Empire (much of Peru, Bolivia and Ecuador and part of northern Argentina and Chile) contained societies that were among the most textile-oriented in the world. The collections of pre-Hispanic textiles in museums worldwide, including cloth from such pre-Inca cultures as Paracas, Nazca, Moche and Chimu, offer stunning visual testimony to the skills of ancient spinners and weavers and of the primacy of cloth in the Andean world.

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