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Şule Yüksel Şenler: An Early Style Icon of Urban Islamic Fashion in Turkey

Rustem Ertug Altinay

Source: Islamic Fashion and Anti-Fashion. New Perspectives from Europe and North America 2013

Book chapter

The formative years of the Republic of Turkey were characterized by a series of social and legal reforms implemented under the leadership of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk in order to construct a secular (albeit implicitly Sunni Muslim), modern, Western nation-state with an authentic Turkish essence. In Turkey’s modernization and nation-building program, women were imagined as the builders of a new life, ‘a modern way of living both in the private and the public spaces’ (Göle 1997: 51). They were expected

1690–1815: Chinoiserie, Indiennerie, Turquerie and Egyptomania

Adam Geczy

Source: Fashion and Orientalism. Dress, Textiles and Culture from the 17th to the 21st Century 2013

Book chapter

See, mademoiselle, how that goes well with your Chinese-style hairstyle, your mantle of peacock feathers, your petticoat of celadon and gold, your cinnamon bottoms and your shoes of jade…

1868–1944: The Japoniste Revolution, the Deorientalizing of the Orient and the Birth of Couture

Adam Geczy

Source: Fashion and Orientalism. Dress, Textiles and Culture from the 17th to the 21st Century 2013

Book chapter

Civilization! Read: ‘the era that has lost almost all its creative power…in jewellery as in furniture’; and in one or the other we are compelled to exhume or import. Import what? Indian bracelets of glass filament and Chinese earrings of cut paper? No. But more often the naïve taste that underlies their making.

Introduction

Adam Geczy

Source: Fashion and Orientalism. Dress, Textiles and Culture from the 17th to the 21st Century 2013

Book chapter

We arrived at the opulent bazaars that form the centre of Istanbul, a solidly constructed stone labyrinth in the Byzantine style which served as a vast shelter from the daytime heat. Its huge galleries of arched and vaulted ceilings supported by sculpted pillars were in colonnades, each dedicated to particular kinds of merchandise. Most remarkable were the clothes and the female slippers [babouches], fabrics embroidered or in lamé, cashmeres, carpets, gold, silver or opal-encrusted furniture, the

Transnational Networks of Veiling-fashion between Turkey and Western Europe

Banu Gökarıksel and Anna Secor

Source: Islamic Fashion and Anti-Fashion. New Perspectives from Europe and North America 2013

Book chapter

The Turkish veiling-fashion industry, while paralleling many of the broader trends in apparel production in Turkey, nonetheless has a unique profile. In the autumn of 2008, we conducted a detailed survey with 174 veiling-fashion firms (that is, firms with 10 per cent or more of their production in Islamic dress for women), which we identified through the membership lists of textile associations, advertising and industry fairs. We estimate that there are a total of 200 to 225 such firms in the cou

The Genealogy of the Turkish Pardösü in the Netherlands

R. Arzu Ünal

Source: Islamic Fashion and Anti-Fashion. New Perspectives from Europe and North America 2013

Book chapter

Three-quarter-length overcoats were the most commonly worn outdoor attire mentioned in the accounts of migrant women coming to the Netherlands in the late 1970s. A few Turkish women came alone as workers;most of them were the wives of guest workers and came as temporary residents. The first generation of migrant women described that particular style of overcoat as the first modern and şehirli(urban) item of outdoor clothing they had ever worn. These were relatively close-fitting overcoats, intend

Dress Reforms of the Early Twentieth Century in Turkey, Iran, and Afghanistan

Derek Bryce

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Central and Southwest Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

During the 1920s and 1930s, three states—Turkey, Iran, and Afghanistan—embarked on a series of wide-ranging programmatic reforms designed to transform their respective societies fundamentally. Often called “modernization from above” because of their association with authoritarian elites, these reforms attempted to impose changes in state, economic, and sociocultural spheres that favored broadly Western models and to replace or restrict the practice of corresponding traditional, indigenous, or Isl

Dress and Tourism

Derek Bryce

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Central and Southwest Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Tourism is an industry of increasing global significance. With international tourist arrivals forecast to exceed 1.5 billion by 2020, it is clear that catering to such vast temporary movements of people has significant impacts on host environments and cultures. In broad terms, this industry is systemically driven to commodify entire cultures in order to render them consumable by large numbers of potential tourists. Perhaps paradoxically, the supposed cultural novelty and exoticism of a destinatio

Silk Clothing as an Economic Factor, Safavid Persia

Margaret A. Deppe

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Central and Southwest Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Surviving articles of dress in Persia from the Safavid Empire (1502–1736) illustrate the extensive network of production and distribution of raw silk and silk goods throughout Asia and Europe in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. The economic role of silk textiles for garments and accessories was substantial. Already an important industry before Safavid times, production of silk increased under Shah Abbas I. Magnificent garments, carpets, and other textiles were produced for palace use and

The Influences of Ottoman Culture

June Hill

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus 2010

Encyclopedia entry

From its initial base east of the Bosphorus in the early 1300s, Ottoman rule gradually extended across East Europe, replacing the Byzantine Empire as the region’s major power. In 1676, the Ottoman Empire stretched from Crete and Anatolia to Dalmatia, Poland, and the Ukraine. It was to be 250 years before the empire reverted to its founding state, culminating in the establishment of the Republic of Turkey in 1923. At the height of its empire, Ottoman products such as embroidery were fashionable in

Christian Secular, Monastic, and Liturgical Dress in the Eastern Mediterranean

Karel C. Innemée

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Central and Southwest Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The first Christian communities were established around the Mediterranean in the first century c.e. At that time there was not yet a unifying structure. By the second century, most communities observed three ranks in the local hierarchy: an episkopos (bishop, literally overseer) as the head, presbyteroi (priests), and diakonoi (deacons). There was not yet any kind of distinctive garment that indicated rank. The first Council of Nicea (325 c.e.) brought together bishops from all over the Christian

Historical Survey of Textiles and Dress in Turkey

Charlotte Jirousek

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Central and Southwest Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The Turkic people have a long and far-reaching history that originates in Central Asia, where ethnic Turks are still found. Turkic people in the early twenty-first century reside across the length of Asia, from northwestern China to the Balkans. The term Turkic refers to the general ethnolinguistic group that includes existing societies such as the Kazakhs, Uzbeks, Kyrgyz, Tatar, Uighurs, Azerbaijani, Turkmen, and Turkish people. It also includes past civilizations such as the Xiongnu, Cumans, Av

Turkish Embroidery

Sumru Belger Krody

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Central and Southwest Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Embroidery and embroidered textiles offer a unique window into urban society in the Ottoman Empire. The history of the urban embroidery tradition from the sixteenth century on parallels that of the Ottoman Empire with its changing geography, economy, and social life. Embroidery was one of the art forms practiced both commercially and domestically by a large portion of the population in the empire. Both men and women embroidered textiles that were to be used personally or sold. Gender was the dete

Politics and Dress: Women’s Religious Head Covers

Christina Lindholm

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Global Perspectives 2010

Encyclopedia entry

At first glance, politics and dress seem to be strange bedfellows. On closer study, however, it becomes clear that a wide variety of agendas are enacted through the medium of cloth and clothing, and none are more heated than debates on women’s head covers. Abraham Maslow situated clothing on the bottom tier of his hierarchy of needs based on the physiological requirements of people of all cultures from time immemorial. Throughout history examples abound from most countries of how humans have parl

Serbia: Urban Dress, 1830 to 1941

Mirjana Menković

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus 2010

Encyclopedia entry

At the beginning of the nineteenth century, many Serbs, especially in the towns, adopted Oriental, more precisely Levantine, types of dress. The Turkish authorities, in their desire to impose their culture as a universal model throughout the Ottoman Empire, did not object to their non-Muslim subjects’ adoption of their cultural patterns, including their style of dress. This was one way to achieve a unified general model within Ottoman society, a society that was widely diversified in terms of the

Turkish Fashion Designers

Fatma Mete

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Central and Southwest Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The Ottoman Empire was at the center of interactions between the Eastern and Western worlds for six centuries and was, in many respects, an Islamic successor to earlier Mediterranean empires, especially the Roman Empire and the Byzantine Empire. Throughout its history, the Ottoman Empire was constantly interacting with other countries, cultures, and regions; its unique Turkish culture therefore evolved by absorbing the cultures of conquered lands and their peoples. At the same time, it was influe

Ottoman Dress

Nancy Micklewright

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Central and Southwest Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The Ottomans were a world power in the Mediterranean for several centuries, with their empire extending at its height from Tabriz in the east around the Arabian Peninsula, the Levant, Egypt, and across North Africa to Algiers. In Europe, they controlled much of Hungary, the Balkans, and Greece. Although it took nearly two hundred years to assemble this vast empire, their role as a world power was assured with their conquest of Constantinople in 1453. From that point until the defeat of the Ottoma

Kurdish Dress

Layla Yousif Pio

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Central and Southwest Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Kurdistan is located in central Southwest Asia and covers an area of approximately 151,350 square miles (392,000 square kilometers) incorporated into parts of eastern Turkey, northwestern Iran, northern Iraq, northern Syria, and the former Soviet Union. There are also two large Kurdish enclaves in central and north-central Anatolia in Turkey and in the province of Khorassan in northeast Iran. The Kurds remain the largest ethnic population in the world without an autonomous independent state of th

Veils and the Hajj

Elisha P. Renne

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Global Perspectives 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Veils have historically been associated with women’s performance of hajj (the pilgrimage to Mecca) in Saudi Arabia, as documented in the travel narratives of attending pilgrims. While pilgrimage to Mecca prior to the mid-twentieth century entailed extended, sometimes lifelong, travel over land and by sea, airplanes have allowed many more Muslim men and women from around the world to perform hajj since the 1950s.This increase has exposed Muslim women to many different styles of veils worn in count

Turkish Costume Albums

Jennifer M. Scarce

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Central and Southwest Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The expansion of the Ottoman Turkish Empire—from modest beginnings in Anatolia during the thirteenth century to control over territories spanning the Balkans, the east coast of the Mediterranean and Egypt, much of North Africa, Iraq, and Arabia by the late sixteenth to early seventeenth centuries—provoked much concern and curiosity among the European states who encountered its power. From the late fifteenth century on, Europeans visited the capital, Istanbul, and the rest of the Ottoman world in

Regional Dress in Anatolia

Jennifer M. Scarce

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Central and Southwest Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The importance of dress as visible evidence of the wearer’s roles and responsibilities in both public and private domains (such as rank, profession, religious and ethnic identity, wealth, age, and marital and familial status) and, to a certain extent, personal taste within the limits of acceptable codes of behavior is an eloquent statement of the multicultural diversity of the Ottoman Turkish Empire, whose territories extended from Southeast Europe to Arab lands. Anatolia, the empire’s hinterland

Turkish Dress and Fashion in the Twentieth Century

Gozde Stegeborn

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Examining the dress worn in different historical periods demonstrates how dress reflects transitions within the Republic of Turkey and demystifies Turkish youth’s forms of dress by focusing on its sociocultural, political, and economic contexts in Turkish history. The dress worn by Turkish university students from 1923 to 2000 is visible in photographs in the annuals of the two leading universities located in Istanbul. The analysis post 2000 is based on personal observations and related literatur

Royal Dress Preserved at the Topkapi Museum

Hülya Tezcan

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Central and Southwest Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The Topkapi Palace is home to an opulent collection of 1,550 garments of historical Ottoman apparel. The existence of this collection arises from a palace tradition whereby when a sultan or (male) member of the immediate court died, his clothes were removed for safekeeping and placed in protective wrappers. The collection begins with kaftans belonging to Fatih Sultan Mehmed (Mehmed the Conqueror, 1451–1481), and it ends with garments owned by the last sultan, Mehmet Reşad in the early twentieth c

Introduction to the History of Dress on the Iranian Plateau

Willem Vogelsang

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Central and Southwest Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The Iranian Plateau stretches from the banks of the Tigris River in the west to the valley of the Indus River in the east, and from the arid expanse of West Turkistan in the north to the Indian Ocean in the south. It is a harsh land, with limited water supplies, hot summers, and sometimes bitterly cold winters. Its geographic location, however, has made it into a natural transition zone between the plains of Southwest Asia, including ancient Mesopotamia, and the humid valleys and arid deserts of

The Role of Scents and the Body in Turkey

Marlene R. Breu

Source: Dress Sense. Emotional and Sensory Experiences of the Body and Clothes 2007

Book chapter

The chemical response of smell, and the closely related sense of taste, allows us to experience our environment. Like other animals, our sense of smell provides a warning system of impending danger or alerts us to such things as the approach of a storm, overripe foods, the presence of poor quality air, or the onslaught of an illness. According to Gibbons, this practice was used prior to modern sophisticated methods of health care (1986). Evidence exists from antiquity of the use of scents for mag

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