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Moko Māori: Skin Modification

Ngahuia Te Awekotuku, Linda Waimarie Nikora and Mohi Robert Rua

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The Māori people settled Aotearoa (New Zealand) from the islands of the eastern Pacific, coming in successive waves over many centuries. They brought with them the languages, music, belief systems, and technologies of their cultures of origin. They also brought the practice of permanent skin modification. Tattoo chisels similar to those used in western Polynesia have been found in some of the earliest excavations. With the new environment came new resources: massive hardwood forests, nephrite and

Antarctic Explorer Wear

Natalie Cadenhead

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Clothing worn in the Ross Sea region of Antarctica demonstrates important design changes developed to assist wearers with extreme weather conditions. Antarctic clothing history is split into two main eras: the heroic era from 1840 to 1917 and the scientific era from 1940 to the twenty-first century. Exploration that occurred between these eras was mainly sea-based for commercial reasons (sealing and whaling) and did not affect clothing design in any major way. At the beginning of the heroic era o

The Māori Pari (Bodice)

Jo Diamond

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The pari is a Māori bodice of the rāranga type, worn with a piupiu (a type of fibrous skirt) and Māori jewelry by women in cultural performances including competitions, concerts, and festivals. Rāranga is a generic naming for plaited (as opposed to loom) handweaving practices undertaken mostly, though not exclusively, by Māori women. Māori performances usually occur in order to promote traditional practices, but for some they include a more material reward or prize money or are part of fund-raisi

Designer Fashion in New Zealand

Alison Goodrum

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The shape and form of designer fashion in New Zealand have changed over time. In the 1940s and 1950s designer fashion referred to traditional haute couture (literally, “high sewing”) and was narrowly defined in terms of custom-made garments produced to high specifications for wealthy women clients. New Zealand emulated designs from Europe and received seasonal dictates and imports from established fashion capitals, particularly London, Paris, and large cities in North America and Australia. Howev

Liturgical Robes in New Zealand

Sandra Heffernan

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Liturgical dress worn by members of the Roman Catholic Church played an important part in daily life and religious observances, and rituals from birth to death, in colonial New Zealand. In 1838 Marist Catholic missionaries landed in the north of New Zealand, where most of the twelve Catholic mission stations were established. At this time seventy thousand Māoris were dispersed throughout the country, and there was a small European settlement of approximately twenty thousand, mostly in the ports a

Dress and Fashion Education: Design and Business

Jane E. Hegland

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Global Perspectives 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Haute couture education can be traced back to Louis XIV’s court, where French fashions were promoted through fashion dolls. Early education was informal, mostly based on apprenticeships. In the nineteenth century, the Chambre Syndicale de la Haute Couture was formed, providing a formalized education for couturiers. By 1927, the Ecole de la Chambre Syndicale de la Couture Parisienne emerged as a universally recognized institution. Since these beginnings, the design and business of fashion has expa

Resources for the Study of European Dress and Fashion in New Zealand

Laura Jocic

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The historical factors of settler life inevitably influenced the reasons why clothing has been saved. Much emphasis was placed on fashionable, quality clothing of women, although there have been other kinds of dress acquired and ideas about collecting have changed substantially in the twenty-first century. Regional factors, the scattered location of museums and collections, their particularities of acquisition, and the limited state of research into the subject are discussed below. Little has bee

Wool

Ingun Grimstad Klepp

Translated by Stig Erik Sørheim

Kjetil Enstad

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Wool is probably the first fiber humans used, and throughout history it has been not only the most utilized fiber but also a commodity of great economic significance. In the twenty-first century, wool plays a more modest role and is primarily associated with quality and tradition.

Black and New Zealand Dress

Bronwyn Labrum

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The color black features in New Zealand dress in distinctive ways that are the product of the nation’s particular history and culture. It is frequently evoked as New Zealand’s national color, primarily because of its lengthy association with the game of rugby union and the uniform of other key sporting codes. More recently, the supposed affinity between this hue and the work of leading fashion designers has cemented the association. The color black has connections across other groups within New Z

A Māori Fashion Designer

Bronwyn Labrum

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands 2010

Encyclopedia entry

In the twenty-first century Māori fashion labels such as Kia Kaha have taken Māori fashion onto the streets and catwalks of New Zealand and around the world. But one of the pioneers of Māori fashion blazed a pathway decades before, not on the catwalk, but in the halls of Parliament. Followers of indigenous fashion owe a huge debt to Whetu Tirikātene-Sullivan, who supported the development of modern Māori fashion through the patronage of artists and designers, and who was its best advertisement.

The Social Significance of Institutional Dress in New Zealand

Bronwyn Labrum

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands 2010

Encyclopedia entry

As a settler colony, New Zealand inherited its range of institutions, their modes of operation, and their day-to-day practices from Britain. This legacy included the forms of institutional dress worn by institutional staff and residents, although they were modified to suit the distinctive economic, political, and cultural context that developed in the South Pacific nation. Often is it easier to find out about the experiences of staff whose activities appear in annual reports and institutional arc

The Swanndri in New Zealand

Bronwyn Labrum

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Since its invention in the early twentieth century, the Swanndri, a woolen bush shirt, has become synonymous with New Zealand’s outdoor lifestyle. It started life as farmers’ garb and was designed by English emigrant William Henry Broome, who in 1902 had settled in New Plymouth in the rural heartland of Taranaki North Island at the age of twenty-one. The son of a shoe manufacturer, he established himself as a clothier and tailor. His business flourished, and in 1935 he went into partnership with

New Zealand Textiles and Apparel Sectors

R. M. Laing and C. A. Wilson

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Development of the textile and apparel sectors in New Zealand can be traced from settler society to the early twenty-first century, influenced by geography, communication, trade policies and agreements, government assistance, and fashion and technical developments of Western Europe and the United States. During this period there were times of dependence, then relative self-sufficiency in the late nineteenth and much of the early twentieth century. The change to greater dependency on imports durin

Dress and Fashion in New Zealand

Angela Lassig

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands 2010

Encyclopedia entry

In the twentieth century the development of women’s dress and fashion in New Zealand, including hairstyling and cosmetics, was not a unique national story contained within geographical boundaries. From the late nineteenth century and throughout the next, the dress of New Zealand women closely followed overseas developments, particularly in France and later Britain and America. The fact that a major Wellington department store, Te Aro House, would advertise, in 1894, their new dressmaking departme

Geographical and Geopolitical Introduction

Margaret Maynard

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The Pacific region covers a vast geographic area. From the continent of Australia it reaches its southernmost point at Antarctica, while to the north it extends to the shores of Asia, and to the west, the Americas. It includes all the island groups of Micronesia, Polynesia, and Melanesia. The first inhabitants arrived between forty thousand and sixty thousand years ago and populated Australia and New Guinea with successive waves of Austronesians, settling island after island. The Māori were among

Economies and Cultures of Dress

Margaret Maynard

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The economic and cultural history of dress in Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific is extraordinarily complex and varied. The region spans highly industrialized nations, communities based on subsistence living, and intermediary economies. Shifts in cultural attitudes toward dress and the body and alteration to economies over time have been accentuated by trade with Europe, the United States, and Asia. Clothing demarcating gender and age differences must be acknowledged, as well as cross-cultur

Pacific Street Styles in Auckland

Giles Peterson and Billie Lythberg

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands 2010

Encyclopedia entry

A moko with a kilt…a “Kalo and Fried Corned-Beef” (KFC) T-shirt…tapa-printed hoodies worn with lavalavas … a tupenu with clogs … the hint of a pe’a above jeans … urban Pacific street style brings a distinctly Aotearoa (New Zealand)–Pacific flavor to international trends and labels, fusing together elements of the local and the global, the high-tech and the handcrafted, Pacific motifs and multinational branding, haute couture and factory standard issue. Particularly associated with Auckland, known

Photographic Representations of Pacific Peoples

Max Quanchi

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The first camera arrived in the Pacific shortly after it was invented in France in 1839, and photographs of Pacific Islanders were taken during several European voyages in the 1840s. Most of these photographs have not survived. Permanent European traders, settlers, and regular visitors increased after the founding of Botany Bay (Sydney) in 1788 and the growth of port towns at Honolulu, Papeete, Levuka, and Apia; and an accessible collection of photographs, many recording the dress and accoutremen

Māori and European Dress: Cultural Exchanges in New Zealand

Jennifer Quérée

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands 2010

Encyclopedia entry

From the late eighteenth century Māori have used dress as one of the means of negotiating and accommodating European culture, especially during the great influx of settlers in the mid- to late nineteenth century. Initially, Māori selectively combined European garments and accessories with their own dress, both as fashionable novelties and as a means of enhancing or gaining social standing. Over a much longer period of time Māori were required to wear European dress by Christian missionaries and e

Wearable Art in New Zealand

Natalie Smith

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Historically, wearable art, or art-to-wear as it is known in North America, emerged out of the counterculture aesthetics of the 1960s. The term loosely referred to the customized surface design of dress, using various techniques including embroidery, beadwork, and painting, as a statement against mass-produced dress. In addition to this personal imagery, symbols appropriated from Eastern religions provided a popular visual resource. New Zealand Wearable Art, on the other hand, is the outcome of a

Niue: Dress, Hats, and Woven Accessories

Hilke Thode-Arora

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The small Polynesian island of Niue is one of the highest coral islands in the world. Only its plateau, rising with steep cliffs above a jagged coastline, can be inhabited. Throughout Niue’s history droughts and famines have been experienced with regularity. There are no rivers on the island, and, although soil is fertile, vast stretches of land have been exhausted by shifting cultivation and ill-advised agricultural programs of the past. The soil is easily blown off by frequent and often devasta

Paua Shell Costume Jewelry in New Zealand

Petronella J.M. van de Wijdeven

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands 2010

Encyclopedia entry

New Zealand’s best-known costume jewelry is made from the iridescent shell of the paua (the Māori name for Haliotis iris), a species of abalone only found in the sea around New Zealand. Paua shell was a material used by Māori to highlight the eyes of figures in their carving. Alfred Atkinson in Wellington first introduced the use of paua shell to New Zealand jewelry in the early years of the twentieth century. He produced individually crafted pieces of shell jewelry, which sold through a fine art

Pacific Sisters: Urban Pacific Art, Fashion, and Performance

Feeonaa Wall

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Under the banner “Pacific Sisters,” a group of fashion designers, artists, performers, and musicians based in Aotearoa (New Zealand) began working together in the early 1990s. Of predominantly mixed Polynesian (a subgroup of Pacific peoples, including Māori, the first nation peoples of Aotearoa) and European heritage, their work has responded to the unique multicultural urban environment of Tamaki Makaurau (Auckland), home to the world’s largest urban population of Pacific peoples. The group’s dr

Introduction to Māori Dress

Patricia Te Arapo Wallace

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands 2010

Encyclopedia entry

When early Eastern Polynesian navigators explored Te Moana-Nui ā-Kiwa (“The Great Sea of Kiwa,” or the Pacific Ocean), they discovered the world’s largest oceanic archipelago, Aotearoa—New Zealand. The temperate climate of this geographically isolated land had produced a restricted range of flora and fauna. Away from their tropical homelands, the voyaging ancestors of the Māori people discovered that survival in the colder climate required significantly warmer clothing. They experimented with new

School Uniforms in New Zealand

Elaine Webster

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands 2010

Encyclopedia entry

New Zealand has a strong and continuing tradition of school uniform in secondary (high) schools. Nearly everyone going to school in New Zealand since the 1940s wore a uniform for between five and thirteen of their formative years, although their experiences are likely to have been different from those of their parents and the next generation. The meanings and the functions of school uniforms are culturally and historically specific, and in New Zealand they altered considerably over the twentieth

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