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Knit Fabrics

Deborah E. Young

Source: Swatch Reference Guide for Fashion Fabrics, 4th Edition, 2018, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter + STUDIO

Knitting is the second major method of constructing a textile. Weaving was invented thousands of years before knitting; knits are relative newcomers. As such, knitting structures borrow a lot of their terms and surfaces from woven fabrics. Notice that some knit fabrics even share the same or similar names as woven fabrics, such as piqués, ribs, and jacquards. It can be quite confusing. In the past decade, the knit market has grown exponentially, taking on a much larger share of the textile market

Stitch Fundamentals

Lisa Donofrio-Ferrezza and Marilyn Hefferen

Source: Designing a Knitwear Collection. From Inspiration to Finished Garments, 2nd Edition, 2017, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter + STUDIO

The loop is the basic structure of knitting. When a loop is formed and used in a sequence, a knit fabric is created. When a yarn is carried horizontally to create a series of loops, the method of knitting is known as weft knitting (see Chapter 1). Weft structures may be made by hand or by machine. This is the most common method of knitting used for fabric and clothing (Figure 3.1, left). Warp knitting is the method of carrying a yarn in a sequence that requires a vertical movement (Figure 3.1, ri

Creative Design and the Development Package

Lisa Donofrio-Ferrezza and Marilyn Hefferen

Source: Designing a Knitwear Collection. From Inspiration to Finished Garments, 2nd Edition, 2017, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter + STUDIO

Inspiration for a seasonal knitwear collection comes from many sources—popular culture; the available yarns and equipment; and prevailing trends in silhouettes, stitches, patterns, and color palettes. Designers may travel to yarn and knit fairs to review the forecasted trends for seasonal yarns and stitch development and begin to purchase sample yarn for their next season. One of the largest knit fairs, Pitti Filati, takes place in Florence, Italy, twice yearly for about three days around the end

Garment Construction

Anette Fischer and Kiran Gobin

Source: Construction for Fashion Design, 2nd Edition, 2017, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter

The following equipment is used in the construction of garments. You will find the necessary items for hand and machine sewing in most haberdashery shops. If you are looking to invest in industrial machinery, then talk to a tradesman first.

Knits

Steven Stipelman

Source: Illustrating Fashion. Concept to Creation, 4th Edition, 2017, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter

Included in this category are:

Laying Out, Cutting, and Stitching Knits

Julie Cole

Source: Patternmaking with Stretch Knit Fabrics, 2016, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter + STUDIO

An L-square ruler and a tape measure are required tools you need for laying out and cutting knits. The remaining tools you need are as follows (see also Figure 4.1):

What You Need to Sew and Overlock Knits

Sharon Czachor

Source: Sewing with Knits and Stretch Fabrics, 2016, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter + STUDIO

In general, the term “laying out the fabric” refers to the positioning of the pattern pieces onto the fabric (Figure 2.1). In production a marker is created that indicates the layout of the pattern pieces and is used as a guide for cutting the fabric for production. The pattern layout can be done manually or on a computer and helps to estimate the amount of yardage required. Pattern pieces are arranged to take into consideration three aspects of the fabric: structure, design, and width. The patt

Sizing Knits

Sharon Czachor

Source: Sewing with Knits and Stretch Fabrics, 2016, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter + STUDIO

What is ease? Ease is the extra amount added to a pattern at the bust, waist, and hips for comfortable fit and wear. Without ease, a garment would not be able to function for its intended purpose. Knit garments don’t require as much garment ease because of the stretch properties in the knit fabric. Stretch woven fabrics have a certain percent of spandex added to the fibers when the fabric is manufactured, which provides a slight amount of stretch or “give” for comfortable wearing. However, a T-sh

Preparing Knits and Stretch Wovens for Stitching

Sharon Czachor

Source: Sewing with Knits and Stretch Fabrics, 2016, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter + STUDIO

Whether the chosen fabric is a knit or a stretch woven, it’s important to identify the right side and wrong side of the fabric (Figure 4.1a and b). The wrong side of the fabric is where the markings are placed, where interfacing or stabilizers of any kind are placed, and where the construction stitches are sewn. Because of the diversity of fibers used in creating knit fabrics and stretch woven fabrics, the fibers react differently to marking pens, pencils, chalk, or wax marking utensils, even us

Stitching Knits with a Sewing Machine

Sharon Czachor

Source: Sewing with Knits and Stretch Fabrics, 2016, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter + STUDIO

The supplies you will need to stitch samples of various stitches, seams, hems and techniques are a tape measure, scissors, marking utensil, seam ripper. You will also need the following.

Stitching Knits with an Overlock Machine and Coverstitch Machine

Sharon Czachor

Source: Sewing with Knits and Stretch Fabrics, 2016, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter + STUDIO

Overlock machines have only been available to the home sewing market for the past 40 years. While it does not replace a sewing machine, it does make many construction techniques faster.

T-shirts, Tops, and Sweaters

Sharon Czachor

Source: Sewing with Knits and Stretch Fabrics, 2016, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter + STUDIO

T-shirts started out as undergarments, evolving from one-piece union suits into separate tops and bottoms. The tops were made long enough to tuck into the bottoms. Workers began wearing them as lightweight shirts in hot climates. They became popular in the United States when the U.S. Navy issued them to be worn under uniforms. It became common for sailors and marines to remove their uniform jackets while working on board submarines and tropical climates, wearing the T-shirt with uniform pants.

Knitted Fabrics (Swatches 49–69)

Ingrid Johnson, Ajoy K. Sarkar and Allen C. Cohen

Source: J. J.Pizzuto’s Fabric Science. Swatch Kit, 11th Edition, 2016, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter + STUDIO

The Skill of Garment Embellishment

Zoya Nudelman

Source: The Art of Couture Sewing, 2nd Edition, 2016, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter

Embroidery has been around for centuries in artwork and clothing and as a form of decoration. Embroidery was a popular way for women in the Victorian era to express their ideas and beliefs at embroidery circles, tea parties, or book readings or in the comfort of their own homes. Since hand embroidery was one of the simplest options, it was taught to younger girls in order to pass along the tradition, to grow their skills with age, and for mother/daughter bonding opportunities. The Victorian era

The Skill of Fabric Manipulation

Zoya Nudelman

Source: The Art of Couture Sewing, 2nd Edition, 2016, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter

Appliqués are cutout fabric, lace, or cutwork shapes applied to the garment. They are attached on by hand, machine, or with heat.

The Skill of Hand and Machine Stitching

Zoya Nudelman

Source: The Art of Couture Sewing, 2nd Edition, 2016, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter

Couture technicians use hand stitches to control the entire construction of the designed garment. Sewing by hand enables you to sew on the right side of the garment as well as areas that a sewing machine can never reach, such as small corners of designed pockets, fabric overlays, and much more. Hand stitching is sometimes best with thin, soft fabrics because it does not leave marks, and if there’s a mistake, it allows you to take out the seams without ruining the fabric.

Stitches

Connie Amaden-Crawford

Source: A Guide to Fashion Sewing, 6th Edition, 2015, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter + STUDIO

By studying the information in this chapter, the designer will be able to:

Fabric Manipulation

Kimberly A. Irwin

Source: Surface Design for Fabric, 2015, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter + STUDIO

Appliqué is the process of attaching another fabric, or patch, called patchwork, or ribbon or trim, called passementerie, to the surface of another fabric.

Embroidery

Kimberly A. Irwin

Source: Surface Design for Fabric, 2015, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter + STUDIO

Early needles and threads were used to sew together animal hides to make simple clothing and shelter, but eventually sewing evolved into a decorative craft. Embroidery developed throughout Siberia and the Middle East as early as the Bronze Age (4500–100 BC) and in China during the Zhou Dynasty (1100–256 BC).ClarkeSimon. Textile Design. London: Laurence King Publishing, 2011. It spread into Europe by the 12th century where it was found on religious banners and streamers bearing coats of arms. Embr

Embellishment

Kimberly A. Irwin

Source: Surface Design for Fabric, 2015, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter + STUDIO

Beading is the art of embellishing fabric by attaching beads. The methods are simple and are limited only by the designer’s imagination. Most needlework techniques can be adapted to beading with the right bead, needle, and thread.

Knitted Fabrics

Ingrid Johnson, Allen C. Cohen and Ajoy K. Sarkar

Source: J.J. Pizzuto’s Fabric Science, 11th Edition, 2015, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter + STUDIO

The knitting industry, like the weaving industry, is diverse, creative, and global. While knitting might not be as old a method of producing material as weaving, it is a major type of material in the marketplace. Knitted fabrics are used in a wide range of products, including numerous apparel items, blankets, carpets, upholstery, and sheets. Knit fabrics frequently are used in applications where stretchability, drapability, crease resistance, and wrinkle recovery are needed attributes. Technologi

Commercial Product Development and Production

Susan M. Watkins and Lucy E. Dunne

Source: Functional Clothing Design. From Sportswear to Spacesuits, 2015, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter

Even though most consumers tend to assume all garments are stitched together, many items of protective clothing cannot be stitched. They must be formed using a variety of types of heat sealing or molding processes because the holes left by the stitching reduce their effectiveness. When stitching is used to form protective clothing, there are additional considerations that need to be made to ensure that the particular stitch type, stitch length, thread, and other factors are appropriate for the ga

ASTM and ISO Stitch and Seam Classifications Lab

Janace E. Bubonia

Source: Apparel Quality Lab Manual, 2014, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter

Chapters 6 and 7 of Apparel Quality: A Guide to Evaluating Sewn Products focus on standards for designating stitches and seams used in the apparel industry for garment assembly. Knowledge of thread and fabric construction, stitch classifications, and seam efficiency in relation to the garments end use helps designers and product developers make choices appropriate for the assembly of apparel items.

ASTM and ISO Stitch Classifications

Janace E. Bubonia

Source: Apparel Quality. A Guide To Evaluating Sewn Products, 2014, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter + STUDIO

For garments that contain stitching, thread is an essential component for garment assembly and must be properly selected. Factors that should be taken into consideration when making thread selections for garment decoration or assembly include the fiber content, construction, and weight of fabrics to be sewn; the desired seam construction and seam strength; the type of sewing equipment to be used; product end use and desired performance; and useful life of the product. These aspects can affect the

ASTM and ISO Seam Classifications

Janace E. Bubonia

Source: Apparel Quality. A Guide To Evaluating Sewn Products, 2014, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter + STUDIO

A seam is formed by joining together two or more layers of fabric by stitching, sealing, welding, or thermal bonding. The primary function of a seam is to secure garment panels and components together, and provide the appropriate amount of strength, durability, and extendibility for the apparel item without causing failure of the fabric or seam when pressure or force is applied. The effectiveness of a seam relies upon the balance between the construction and strength of the seam which must be abl

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