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Mannequins and Mannequin Alternatives

Judy Bell and Kate Ternus

Source: Silent Selling. Best Practices and Effective Strategies in Visual Merchandising, 5th Edition, 2017, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter + STUDIO

The mannequin is regarded as one of the fashion retailer’s most powerful communication tools. Used strategically, it speaks volumes about fashion trends and a store’s brand identity. We know that in order to communicate effectively, a store mannequin must relate to a shopper’s self-image. When shoppers follow current fashion—read about it, talk about it, look at it, buy it, and wear it—they are defining self and describing who they are through the clothing they wear. In fact, more than one indust

Sizing and Fit Specifications

Sandra Keiser, Deborah Vandermar and Myrna B. Garner

Source: Beyond Design. The Synergy of Apparel Product Development, 4th Edition, 2017, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter + STUDIO

“In analyzing how my competitors communicate fit, I saw a place, an opportunity where we could first use models that have more average size figures and also develop a size chart that is easily understandable . . . I want to gain trust and loyalty with our customer base.”

Proportion and the Fashion Figure

Steven Stipelman

Source: Illustrating Fashion. Concept to Creation, 4th Edition, 2017, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter

Sometimes the body takes over. Sometimes the garment takes over. Sometimes it is more equal. When the body takes over, as in a slinky gown, the garment does not come to life until it is on the body. When the garment takes over, as in a voluminous coat, the body is merely a hanger for the clothing. But many times, it is a combination of both.

Drawing the Fashion Figure

Steven Stipelman

Source: Illustrating Fashion. Concept to Creation, 4th Edition, 2017, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter

In the beginning, there are certain rules of proportion with which you must become familiar. The figure is measured in “heads,” with each head representing one inch. These heads will be used to indicate and place the different parts of the fashion figure. After some practice, all the “heads” will suddenly become a figure and after a while you will be drawing!

Simple Blocking of the Figure

Steven Stipelman

Source: Illustrating Fashion. Concept to Creation, 4th Edition, 2017, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter + STUDIO

Now that we are familiar with the proportions of the croquis figure, we will want to give the figure some movement.

Alternative Methods of Figure Evaluation and Style Selection

Elizabeth Liechty, Judith Rasband and Della Pottberg-Steineckert

Source: Fitting & Pattern Alteration. A Multi-Method Approach to The Art of Style Selection, Fitting, and Alteration, 3rd Edition, 2016, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter + STUDIO

Everyone has issues with their bodies. Everything we have ever heard, read, or experienced about our appearance throughout life contributes to the mental perception we have of our bodies. That perception is called “body image.”

Tools of the Trade

Paula J. Myers-McDevitt

Source: Complete Guide to Size Specification and Technical Design, 3rd Edition, 2016, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter + STUDIO

Before any garment can be evaluated, a company sets up its technical design department. This involves getting body dimensions from the designer, patternmaker, or product development team and having dress forms custom made. Spec sheets are designed and measurement points are created. Then garments are measured, and fit sessions are conducted by evaluating garments using proper body ease, and approved sample specifications are graded into a full size range.

Body Types and Size Charts

Connie Amaden-Crawford

Source: A Guide to Fashion Sewing, 6th Edition, 2015, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter + STUDIO

By studying the information in this chapter, the designer will be able to:

The Pattern

Roberto Cabrera and Denis Antoine

Source: Classic Tailoring Techniques for Menswear. A Construction Guide, 2nd Edition, 2015, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter

The following are standard measurements taken by tailors, and used by them to draft patterns which will fit their clients as closely and as comfortably as possible. In conjunction with the measurements, the tailor also notes important information about the client’s body: whether his posture is stooped or overly erect; whether his shoulders are square or sloped; whether his buttocks are full or flat, whether his stomach protrudes; whether one hip or one shoulder is higher than the other, etc.

Lost in A Gaze: Young Men and Fashion in Contemporary Japan

Masafumi Monden

Source: Japanese Fashion Cultures. Dress and gender in contemporary Japan, 2015, Berg Fashion Library

Book chapter

‘Do you understand muslins, sir?’JaneAusten, Northanger Abbey (London: Penguin Books, 1996 [1818]), p. 22.

Boy’s Elegance: A Liminality of Boyish Charm and Old-World Suavity

Masafumi Monden

Source: Japanese Fashion Cultures. Dress and gender in contemporary Japan, 2015, Berg Fashion Library

Book chapter

T-shirts with voluminous scarves are now in store . . . the big scarf looks lovely!Milkboy Staff’s Blog, 2013, available at http://ameblo.jp/mb-staff/page-67.html#main [accessed 7 October 2013]. The texts are translated by Masafumi Monden.

Pattern Grading Fundamentals

Kathy K. Mullet

Source: Concepts of Pattern Grading. Techniques for Manual and Computer Grading, 3rd Edition, 2015, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter + STUDIO

Pattern grading is the process of systematically increasing and decreasing the dimensions of a master-size pattern into a range of sizes for production. Due to cost constraints, one sample-size pattern is developed and fitted, and then other sizes are graded from this master pattern. The purpose of the grading process is to achieve a good fit in each size of the garment without changing the style sense (proportion and balance) of the garment design from the master-size pattern (Solinger, 1988). H

Understanding a Grading System

Kathy K. Mullet

Source: Concepts of Pattern Grading. Techniques for Manual and Computer Grading, 3rd Edition, 2015, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter + STUDIO

A grading system consists of a grade guide and grade distributions (Figure 2.1). These two components are developed based on the identified target customer and anthropometric data. The first and second edition of this textbook developed a simplified grading system based on the PS 42-70 data. This data was publically available and contained numerous points of measurements. In this third edition, the text will work from the concept of developing a grading system and not any particular data. In Chap

User-Centered Design

Susan M. Watkins and Lucy E. Dunne

Source: Functional Clothing Design. From Sportswear to Spacesuits, 2015, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter

There are as many definitions of design as there are authors to write about it. Design is used as a noun, verb, or adjective that can be applied to products as diverse as apparel, space vehicles, graphics, architecture, and cities. The wide variation in end products that are the result of design makes it difficult for many people to pinpoint the common elements that bind together the various design professions. Is design artistic or mathematical? Rational or imaginative? Systematic or chaotic? Am

Providing Mobility in Clothing

Susan M. Watkins and Lucy E. Dunne

Source: Functional Clothing Design. From Sportswear to Spacesuits, 2015, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter

Since clothing is intended to be a second skin, there is no better way to begin a study of mobility needs in clothing than by looking at the mobility of the body itself. Put most simply, movement is the result of the following chain of events: (1) the brain sends signals to the appropriate nerve fibers or motor neurons; (2) they in turn send out impulses, via nerve fibers, which extend from the spinal cord to muscle fibers all over the body; (3) these impulses stimulate the appropriate muscle fib

Smart Clothing and Wearable Technology

Susan M. Watkins and Lucy E. Dunne

Source: Functional Clothing Design. From Sportswear to Spacesuits, 2015, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter

Electricity is the medium through which information flows in a smart garment system. Changes in the flow of electrical energy through sensors are used to deduce information about the wearer or the environment. Electrically controlled displays present information to the user in the form of images, text, sound, or movement. In order to understand electrical systems, it is important to understand the basics of electricity. Energy Basics 4.1 describes some of these basic concepts.

Enhancing and Augmenting Body Functions

Susan M. Watkins and Lucy E. Dunne

Source: Functional Clothing Design. From Sportswear to Spacesuits, 2015, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter

A garment is perceived by both its wearer and others. The quality of this perception—whether the garment is comfortable or uncomfortable, attention grabbing or unnoticeable—depends on designers’ choices with respect to the design elements that stimulate the senses.

Employment Law Issues in Fashion

Elise M. Bloom and Lee Sporn

Source: Fashion Law. A Guide for Designers, Fashion Executives, and Attorneys, 2nd Edition, 2014, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter

This chapter presents an overview of employment law with a focus on particular concerns in the fashion sector. Topics include employment discrimination, wage and hour laws, overtime requirements, uniforms, sweatshop and human rights issues, medical and other types of leave, weight regulations for models, sample clauses in employment agreements, and immigration issues.The following topics, which are related to the field of employment law and may affect fashion-industry employers, are considered ou

Apparel Sizing and Fit Strategies Lab

Janace E. Bubonia

Source: Apparel Quality Lab Manual, 2014, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter

In Chapter 5 of Apparel Quality: A Guide to Evaluating Sewn Products, the importance of body measurement data and the methods used for gathering this information are discussed to further the understanding of how size standards for apparel are developed. Domestic and international voluntary size standards provide retailers with sizing information that reflects the body shapes and sizes of today's consumers. Many br

Measuring the Form Worksheet

Julie Cole and Sharon Czachor

Source: Sample Workbook to Accompany Professional Sewing Techniques for Designers, 2nd Edition, 2014, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter

Personal Measurements Worksheet

Julie Cole and Sharon Czachor

Source: Sample Workbook to Accompany Professional Sewing Techniques for Designers, 2nd Edition, 2014, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter

Calculate the Difference Between Form and Personal Measurements Worksheet

Julie Cole and Sharon Czachor

Source: Sample Workbook to Accompany Professional Sewing Techniques for Designers, 2nd Edition, 2014, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter

Padding the Form to Personal Measurements Worksheet

Julie Cole and Sharon Czachor

Source: Sample Workbook to Accompany Professional Sewing Techniques for Designers, 2nd Edition, 2014, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter

Introduction to Patternmaking

Myoungok Kim and Injoo Kim

Source: Patternmaking for Menswear. Classic to Contemporary, 2014, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter

A “body type” is the relationship of human body shape to body size. Every physical characteristic in a person’s physique can be a determining factor of his or her body type, whether it is height, weight, or lower- to upper-body ratio, as well as the body weight appearance for individual body parts such as the shoulders, chest, and abdomen.

Image Management

Shannon Burns-Tran

Source: StyleWise. A Practical Guide to Becoming a Fashion Stylist, 2013, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter

In this chapter you will learn:

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