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Fiber Classification: Manufactured Fibers

Deborah E. Young

Source: Swatch Reference Guide for Fashion Fabrics, 4th Edition, 2018, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter + STUDIO

Manufactured cellulose fibers are made from plant material that is processed with chemicals. This processing causes a permanent change in the structure of the fiber. For this reason, although the fibers are made from natural ingredients, they are classified as manufactured fibers. For a list of properties appropriate to all manufactured cellulose fibers, see Table 2.2, Properties Common to All Cellulose Fibers (page 16), and Table 3.1, Properties of Individual Manufactured Fibers (pages 24–25).

Yarn Classification

Deborah E. Young

Source: Swatch Reference Guide for Fashion Fabrics, 4th Edition, 2018, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter + STUDIO

A yarn is a group of fibers twisted together to form a continuous strand. Yarns can be filament, spun, or novelty (see Figure 5.1).

Knits

Steven Stipelman

Source: Illustrating Fashion. Concept to Creation, 4th Edition, 2017, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter

Included in this category are:

Fibers (Swatches 1-15)

Ingrid Johnson, Ajoy K. Sarkar and Allen C. Cohen

Source: J. J.Pizzuto’s Fabric Science. Swatch Kit, 11th Edition, 2016, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter + STUDIO

The Utility Clothing Scheme

Geraldine Howell

Source: Wartime Fashion. From Haute Couture to Homemade, 1939–1945, 2012, Berg Fashion Library

Book chapter

Manufactured Cellulosic And Regenerated Protein Fibers

Virginia Hencken Elsasser

Source: Textiles. Concepts and Principles, 3rd Edition, 2010, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter

Manufactured cellulosic and regenerated protein fibers are created from materials that cannot be used for fibers in their original state. For example, cotton linters cannot be spun into cotton, but they can be used to create regenerated cellulosic fibers. Often, but not always, the characteristics of the regenerated fibers are similar to those of the natural fibers. Rayon, a regenerated cellulosic, has some characteristics that are very similar to those of cotton. Regenerated protein fibers are c

Hosiery

Nan H. Mutnick

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. The United States and Canada, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

Before the twentieth century, hosiery had seldom enjoyed the fashion limelight with other accessories of dress. During the nineteenth century, hosiery was made from cotton, silk, or very fine wool. Those living in the colder climates, such as northern Canada, would have used heavier-weight wool for warmth. Colors for women were dictated by fashion, sometimes matching the dress, petticoat, or shoes. Synthetic dyes, developed from a coal-tar derivative in 1856, allowed for modern, sharp, and bright

Synthetics

Michiel Scheffer

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

The origin of synthetic fibers goes back to the development of organic chemistry in the second half of the nineteenth century. The objective was to develop an economical, reliable alternative for silk. The development of rayon, acetate, polyamides, and polyesters all had that aim. Artificial silk was available on an industrial scale from 1920 onward, mainly for stockings and underwear. World War II boosted the production of artificial fibers, since the war interrupted wool and cotton supply to Ge

Rayon/Viscose Made from Wood

Annie Gullingsrud

Foreword by Lynda Grose

Illustrations by Amy Williams

Source: Fashion Fibers. Designing For Sustainability, 2001, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter + STUDIO

Rayon is the oldest manufactured fiber. The rayon process was developed in the late 1800s as an inexpensive alternative to silk. Rayon has a silklike aesthetic, drapes well, is easy to dye, and is highly absorbent. It is a good conductor of heat, so it is a cool, comfortable fiber good for use in warm weather.

Rayon/Viscose Made from Bamboo

Annie Gullingsrud

Foreword by Lynda Grose

Illustrations by Amy Williams

Source: Fashion Fibers. Designing For Sustainability, 2001, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter + STUDIO

Bamboo is a “rapidly renewable” resource, meaning that it grows quickly and can be harvested at least once a year.Voice of America 2009

Modal

Annie Gullingsrud

Foreword by Lynda Grose

Illustrations by Amy Williams

Source: Fashion Fibers. Designing For Sustainability, 2001, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter + STUDIO

Beech trees are soil enhancers, breed naturally, do not need artificial irrigation, and are indigenous to the region around Austria. Though not entirely immune, the beech tree is naturally resistant to pests and disease.Gilman and Watson 2015 Lenzing also states that the yield per acre of Lenzing Modal® is six times higher than cotton yield, and its cultivation requires considerably less water.1

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