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Tweed, Male Fashion, and Modern Masculinities, 1851–1918

Fiona Anderson

Source: Tweed, 2018, Berg Fashion Library

Book chapter

Tweed trouserstrousers in “shepherd’s check” patternshepherd’s checks and other fancy woolensfancy patterns remained popular in Britain and Europe in the 1850s and 1860s.JamesLocke, “A Few Facts on the Tweed Trade,” The Border Advertiser, September 18, 1863, p. 3; CliffordGulvin, The Tweedmakers: A History of the Scottish Fancy Woollen Industry 1600–1914 (Newton Abbot: David & Charles, 1973), p. 80; FaridChenoune, A History of Men’s Fashion (Paris: Flammarion, 1993), pp. 84–5. The Juror’s Report

Introduction

Tereza Kuldova

Source: Luxury Indian Fashion. A Social Critique, 2018, Berg Fashion Library

Book chapter

White Lotus, the theme of the funeral that has transported us into the world of fashion designers and the South Delhi business elite, is a fitting metaphor for the key motif of this book. It is also a fitting metaphor for the ethnographic journey in which this work is grounded and for its analytical angle. Like the lotus, the beauties ritualof Indian fashion and heritage luxuryheritage luxury cannot be conceived without their juxtaposition, without the mud from which they grow and that brings the

Neo-Feudal Ornamentalism and Elitist Fantasies

Tereza Kuldova

Source: Luxury Indian Fashion. A Social Critique, 2018, Berg Fashion Library

Book chapter

The first chapter introduces the Indian fashion industry, the dominant neo-aristocratic aesthetics in contemporary luxury fashion design and the recent intensification of the business elites’ obsession with displays of opulent Indianness and their desire to master time and space through conspicous displays of status. It walks the reader through three key rituals. First, the interactions between designers and their clients in the studios, where they ‘celebrate Indianness’ together. Second, the fas

Producing Cosmopolitanism, Hierarchy and Social Cohesion

Tereza Kuldova

Source: Luxury Indian Fashion. A Social Critique, 2018, Berg Fashion Library

Book chapter

The second chapter develops the theme of imagined economy and India’s superpowerdom by focusing on the symptomatic commodification of past and heritage in fashion design. It does so by zooming onto the complex material and ideological production of traditional chikan embroidery from Lucknow, a city remembered for its past opulence, cosmopolitanism and luxurious lifestyle. It traces the movement of this embroidery, popular with India’s leading designers, from the local networks of its material pro

Design Genius and his Ghost Others

Tereza Kuldova

Source: Luxury Indian Fashion. A Social Critique, 2018, Berg Fashion Library

Book chapter

The third chapter turns to the tensed relations between design and craft. Developing further the case of chikan embroidery, as it moves from villages to fashion boutiques, the chapter analyses the ways in which material labour is artificially separated from immaterial labour. It shows how the designers’ narratives about creativity, innovation and artistic genius systematically push craftspeople into invisibility, inferiority and passivity, and deny their creativity, individuality and agency. The

Charitable Non-Love and Philanthrocapitalism

Tereza Kuldova

Source: Luxury Indian Fashion. A Social Critique, 2018, Berg Fashion Library

Book chapter

Chapter 4 further develops the theme of power relations between design and craft and between the rich and the poor. Many designers working with craftspeople also run non-governmental organizations to ‘empower’ these workers, while cultivating the rhetoric of ethical business and philanthropy, and offering their customers in addition to luxurious clothing also good conscience. Such NGOs and trusts become effective tools of co-option of the village workforce into the capitalist system and reproduce

Insubordinations of the Laughing Craftswoman

Tereza Kuldova

Source: Luxury Indian Fashion. A Social Critique, 2018, Berg Fashion Library

Book chapter

This chapter returns back to the villages surrounding Lucknow, where women embroider the luxurious fabrics for the elites while being patronized by the designers, their NGOs and discourses of ‘ethical business’. Recognizing the destructive power of such efforts and the potential violence inherent in benevolence, the craftswomen use often irony and laughter when confronted with patronizing discourses that position them as vulnerable, poor and in constant need of rescue. They mock the designers and

Erotic Capital and Benevolence of Vampish Goddesses

Tereza Kuldova

Source: Luxury Indian Fashion. A Social Critique, 2018, Berg Fashion Library

Book chapter

Chapter 6 deals with elite women and their utilization of designer fashion in claiming social power and cultivating erotic capital. Designers in collaboration with their elite female clients develop the cultural tropes of the courtesans and the benevolent goddesses in order to enhance the women’s power in the business sphere dominated by men. Carving a space for themselves in the business world or public life, while being good and moral wives is problematic. In order to be both moral and sexy, th

Conclusion

Tereza Kuldova

Source: Luxury Indian Fashion. A Social Critique, 2018, Berg Fashion Library

Book chapter

The conclusion reviews the central points of the work, focusing especially on the power dynamics between the producers and designers, the poor and the rich, the rise of expert privilege and the logic of philanthrocapitalism as an instrument of power. It claims that the current philanthrocapitalism that has taken elite India by storm is deeply neo-feudal in its nature while being wrapped up in rhetoric of good intentions. As such it is a telling sign of the times of brutally rising socio-economic

Purple

Emma Davenport

Source: Fashion Photography Archive, 2015, Fashion Photography Archive

Article

Associated with cultural symbols of opulence and originality, historically the color purple has been worn to convey wealth and status, in particular by those with royal heritage. More recently, the color purple has been linked with creativity and charisma, often gaining popularity in less conservative Western socioeconomic periods. On the catwalk, a variety of designers have used the color purple, including Chloé, Gianni Versace, Byblos, and Sonia Rykiel. Toward the end of the twentieth century,

Gold

Emma Davenport

Source: Fashion Photography Archive, 2015, Fashion Photography Archive

Article

Historically, the color gold was very expensive to produce as it involved creating threads from the scarce mineral known as gold. While associated with cultural symbols of wealth, reverence, and power, the color has also been negatively linked with a lack of taste and conspicuous consumption. On the catwalk, it has been used by a variety of designers including Donna Karan, Yves Saint Laurent, Versace, and Valentino. Since the 1970s, fashion trends associated with the color gold have included club

Oscar de la Renta, Fall/Winter 1994

Lucy Moyse

Source: Fashion Photography Archive, 2015, Fashion Photography Archive

Article

Inky black velvets, rich scarlet, and leopard print furs: Oscar de la Renta’s fall/winter 1994 collection oozed the classic glamour that the designer had established his long-standing fashion career with, and was infused with an Orientalist fantasy aesthetic, reflecting the designer’s admiration of sumptuous Eastern designs. This collection confirmed that despite his recent appointment at Parisian House of Balmain, de la Renta’s own ready-to-wear line remained significant and relevant, where he c

Oscar de la Renta, Fall/Winter 1995

Lucy Moyse

Source: Fashion Photography Archive, 2015, Fashion Photography Archive

Article

For his fall/winter 1995 collection, Oscar de la Renta focused on simple, stylish shapes, yet crafted them with sumptuous fabrics in rich colors. Heavy usage of appliqué and beading, along with chunky costume jewelry, added the glamour and opulence that de la Renta is renowned for. As a designer who typically favored classic styles over seasonal trends, this collection marked a time in which de la Renta’s designs were remarkably aligned with the contemporary fashion mood.

Jewelry of Indo-Pakistan and Bangladesh

Usha Bala

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. South Asia and Southeast Asia, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

The vibrant tradition of Indian jewelry spans five thousand continuous years. Ancient Indians wore jewels of natural materials like shells and tusks, thought to have magical properties. Precious metals were coveted. Gold was regarded as a symbol of the sun; chandi, the term for silver, came from the Sanskrit chandra, meaning moon. Metals were regularly melted. Remarkably well-preserved gold and silver items excavated at Taxila, in modern-day Pakistan, constitute the largest cache of jewelry survi

Twenty-First-Century Qatari Abayeh Fashions

Christina Lindholm

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Central and Southwest Asia, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

Women in Qatar, like many other conservative Muslim Middle Eastern countries, dress in a black robe, the abayeh, and long headscarf, the shaylah. They are adhering to the Qur’anic directive to dress modestly and interpret this as wearing all-covering robes and concealing their hair. There is little agreement on why the women “cover.” Some scholars state that it provides privacy and protection from the eyes of male strangers. Others believe that by wearing plain, anonymous robes, women protect men

Social Class and Clothing

Katalin Medvedev

Source: The Berg Companion to Fashion, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

Social class is a system of multilayered hierarchy among people. Historically, social stratification emerged as the consequence of surplus production. This surplus created the basis for economic inequality, and in turn prompted a ceaseless striving for upward mobility among people in the lower strata of society.

Turkmen Dress and Embroidery

Gillian Vogelsang-Eastwood

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Central and Southwest Asia, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

The majority of the Turkmen live around the Kara Kum (“Black Sand”) desert. The various Turkmen tribes consider themselves to be a single ethnic group. In the early twenty-first century, the Turkmen region is divided among Afghanistan, Iran, and the former Soviet Union. Turkmen of these countries have only been separated by international boundaries for some one hundred years. Prior to this, there was constant trade and social contact between the various groups. Turkmen also engaged in textile tra

The Cavaliers and the Parvenus as Imitators of the Court

Werner Sombart

Source: Classic and Modern Writings on Fashion, 2nd Edition, 2009, Berg Fashion Library

Book chapter

Nothing has contributed more towards perverting our ideas of probity, candour, and disinterestedness, or turning those virtues into ridicule; nothing has more strengthened that fatal propensity to luxury, which is natural to all men, but which is become with us a second nature, by that peculiarity of temper, which makes us fasten eagerly upon everything that can gratify our passions; and nothing in particular has so greatly degraded the French nobility as the rapid and dazzling fortunes of contra

Fashion in the Gilded Age: A Profile of Newport’s King Family

Rebecca J. Kelly

Source: Twentieth-Century American Fashion, 2008, Berg Fashion Library

Book chapter

Editors’ Introduction: By the turn of the twentieth century Americans had seen tremendous growth through industrialization. While this progress aided the development of a substantial middle class, there were still large numbers of European immigrants toiling to achieve the American dream. Great poverty existed in urban areas. Yet immigrants participated in fashion when they could; it was a means to ‘become’ American. Fashion in dress was still very much influenced by Paris, so much so that wealth

Fashion Change in the New Millennium: An Introduction

Annette Lynch and Mitchell D. Strauss

Source: Changing Fashion. A Critical Introduction to Trend Analysis and Meaning, 2007, Berg Fashion Library

Book chapter

Raised as a Roman Catholic, Madonna adopted the Hebrew name Esther … Madonna’s interest in Kabbalah has been covered intensely by the media. She gained a surge in sales of Kabbalah red string bracelets, a red string or stone-studded bracelet used to ward of evil. She reportedly refused to work on Friday night and Saturday, the Jewish Sabbath. Awareness of the Kabbalah Center has grown considerably.

Marriage and Dowry Customs of the Rabari of Kutch: Evolving Traditions

Eiluned Edwards

Source: Wedding Dress Across Cultures, 2003, Berg Fashion Library

Book chapter

The Rabari are Hindu pastoralists who inhabit the desert region of Kutch district in the extreme west of Gujarat, where India borders Pakistan. There are three main subgroups of Rabari in the district: Kachhis in the central and western area, Dhebarias in the east and south-east, and Vagadias in the east and north-east. Their dress is distinguished by the signature use of black wool by the women and white cotton by the men. Much of it is decorated with elaborate hand embroidery (Figure 5.1). Raba

Leadership Arts in State Societies

Judith Perani and Norma H. Wolff

Source: Cloth, Dress and Art Patronage in Africa, 1999, Berg Fashion Library

Book chapter

In both Muslim and non-Muslim West African states, secular and spiritual power interface in the personage of the king. Often, secular power is strengthened by spiritual power. In the indigenous non-Muslim West African kingdoms of Asante, Yoruba, Benin and Fon the office of divine ruler was spiritually sanctioned, and leadership regalia was imbued with sacred power. Among the Fon in the Republic of Benin, special symbols associated with the reigns of different kings had a sacred dimension. Fon div

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