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French Fashion Photography, 1950 Onward

Muriel Berthou Crestey

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

From the 1950s, technical developments reduced the weight of photographic equipment and so contributed to the metamorphosis of fashion photography. The use of the Rolleiflex, flashes that allowed artificial light, and the development of new printing methods played a key role internationally and also in the emergence of a “French school.” The styles of the Groupe des XV photographers such as Philippe Pottier, Robert Doisneau, and the Séeberger brothers, or Italians such as Edigio Scaïoni or Frank

Barthes, Roland

Nicole Pellegrin

Source: The Berg Companion to Fashion 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Following Jean-Baptiste Farges and Andy Stafford, one can try to distinguish three moments—but they are also three directions, closely connected but not successive— in the activities and the life of Barthes: the polemical journalist immediately after the war, the triumphant yet marginal university professor of the postwar boom, and the elusive “novelist” celebrated by the entire intelligentsia of the left in the 1970s.

Research Approaches

Lise Skov and Marie Riegels Melchior

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Global Perspectives 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Dress and fashion are rich and varied fields of study. Some scholars refer to them as “hybrid subjects” because they bring together different conceptual frameworks and disciplinary approaches, including those from anthropology, art history, cultural studies, design studies, economics, history, home economics (in the early twenty-first century more likely to be known as “family and consumer studies” or “human ecology”), literature, semiotics, sociology, visual culture, and business studies. Invari

Does Fashion Need a Theory?

Ingrid Loschek

Source: When Clothes Become Fashion. Design and Innovation Systems 2009

Book chapter

What do Marcel Duchamp’s Urinoir, which he interpreted as the art object Fountain in 1917, and a dress full of holes that Julien McDonald created, which he defined as a lace dress in 1997, have in common? Neither work ‘functions’ without the underlying tension between what is visible and the statement made about it. In 1917, Duchamp submitted the urinal as an artwork for the annual exhibition of the Society of Independent Artists in New York. His claim was that the context—the art exhibition, the

Roland Barthes and the End of the Nineteenth Century

Michael Carter

Source: Fashion Classics from Carlyle to Barthes 2003

Book chapter

Fashion seems to possess two durations.

Tailoring the Nation: Fashion Writing in Nineteenth-Century Argentina

Regina A. Root

Source: Fashioning the Body Politic. Dress, Gender, Citizenship 2002

Book chapter

In The Empire of Fashion, Gilles Lipovetsky (1994) pursues the evolution of modern democracy through the history of dress. He traces the rise of nationalist sentiments to the creation of national forms of dress in Europe of the Middle Ages. Fashion, he argues, ‘helped reinforce the awareness of belonging to a single political and cultural community.’ He continues: As a collective constraint, fashion actually left individuals with relative autonomy in matters of appearance; it instituted an unprec

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