Dress and Religion

Lynne Hume

Bibliographical guide

DOI: 10.5040/9781474280655-BG006

The link between religion and dress can be approached from a number of frameworks including belief, identity, community, individuality, power, prestige and politics, gender, emotion, the senses, and communication; and from a number of disciplines or an interdisciplinary approach. Communicating through dress choices and considering how we present ourselves to the world in general are interesting starting points for research into dress and religion. The sociologist Erving Goffman’s classic text, The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life, does not focus on fashion specifically, but provides a useful context and outlines key theories relating to social interactions and performance based upon the ways in which people choose to present themselves on a daily basis. Social interactions and customs are often defined or reliant upon specific dress codes and ideas of collective identity through dress are created. Dress can also allow the individual an opportunity to communicate personal identity, yet even the most rebellious of people still adhere to some form of societal rule, even if only in the visible demonstration of flouting the rules. Art historian Aileen Ribeiro presents an in-depth analysis of dress and societal customs and taboos in her book Dress and Morality.

Understanding Religion

]Introductory texts on world religions are numerous and generally offer a selection of definitions—from the classic to more contemporary approaches that attempt to embrace all religions under a problematical single all-encompassing definition. In the study of religion, theoretical frameworks vary from the sociological, psychological, and anthropological to the neurophysiological; there are also those from studies in religion. Scholars of religion Willard G. Oxtoby and Alan F. Segal, in A Concise Introduction to World Religions, focus on the origins and evolution of world religions and provide the context needed to understand particular rules for dress within different religions.

Understanding Dress

Joanne B. Eicher, author, editor, and authority on the anthropology of dress, considerably widened the scope of studies on dress by defining “dress” in a way that encompasses not only garments for the body but also the way the body itself is modified, for example tattooing, painting, cosmetics, and other supplements that accompany a dressed or undressed body. Invariably even the nude body has some modification, embellishment, or mark placed upon it. An understanding of the different interpretations of “dress” and “fashion” are key to understanding more about the significance—whether social, physical, or emotional—of the ways in which bodies are dressed in relation to religion.

Eicher’s contribution to dress and the body has considerably broadened the serious academic study of dress in all its facets. Her definitions of dress are articulated in her “Introduction to Global Perspectives” in the Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Alternatively, for those whose interests lie in clothing and textiles, Textile, The Journal of Cloth and Culture is a useful journal, with articles including “Commemorative Textiles and Anglican Church History in Ondo, Nigeria” by clothing scholar Tunde Akinwumi, and “Weaving Imperial Ideas: Iconography and Ideology of the Inca Coca Bag” by Lauren Hughes. Fashion Theory: The Journal of Dress, Body and Culture is an interdisciplinary journal on all aspects of social and cultural significance with regard to dress. The Fashion Theory backlist includes a number of interesting and relevant articles on the subject of dress and religion, including “From Friars to Fornicators: The Eroticization of Sacred Dress,” by William Keenan. In 2007 a special double issue of Fashion Theory was published on the topic of Muslim fashions, with anthropologists Emma Tarlo and Annelies Moors as guest editors. Articles featured included “Fashionable Muslims: Notions of Self, Religion, and Society in Sanà” by Annelies Moors, and “Fashion and Faith in Urban Indonesia” by Carla Jones.

Key Texts on Dress and Religion

Featured under this heading are books that focus primarily on religion and dress, and those that give a global perspective on the subject. The following titles will provide information on a variety of religions and geographical areas, as well as different perspectives and disciplines.

Lynne Hume’s monograph The Religious Life of Dress: Global Fashion and Faith is the first text to concentrate specifically on the major world religions, as well as some lesser-known religions, with regard to dress. It takes a sensorial anthropological approach—which concentrates on the look, smell, feel, touch, and sound of dress, and the textiles, colors, and shapes—and will appeal to any reader interested in culture, religion, fashion, textiles, and the tensions between tradition and modernity, politics and belief. The first two chapters examine the contrast between Christian denominations where dress visibly demonstrates either hierarchy and power or simplicity and humility. Chapter Three discusses the traditional dress of Judaism and Islam with some contemporary surprises; Chapter Four looks at Hindus, sadhus, Sikhs, and Jains within the vastness of India; and Chapter Five visits the early history of the robe in Buddhism and the way that this simple item of clothing has remained true to its origins in certain places and adapted in other regions. The last two chapters investigate how mystical and magical religious beliefs are played out through dress among the Sufis, shamans, modern pagans, and the religions of possession: vodou, santeria, and candomblé. The focus throughout the book is on what it feels like to wear a particular item of dress or an ensemble apropos the wearer’s connection to the religious beliefs that accompany the ensemble. In some religions, the dress is intimately connected to religious experiences.

Undressing Religion: Commitment and Conversion from a Cross-Cultural Perspective by Linda B. Arthur, dress scholar, consists of a collection of historical and ethnographic works to show how religious and social systems are symbolically expressed through dress and how change occurs when a religion moves into another culture. Confucianism, Christianity, voodoo, and Islam are all included. Some accounts contain personal experiences. Regions such as Africa, South America, Asia, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, and the Caribbean give the book an international spread to show religious dress across a wide range of cultures. As the control of female sexuality is invariably of great importance, gender issues with regard to dress are pronounced in this collection. In comparison, her edited volume, Religion, Dress and the Body, investigates a number of American religious communities where dress is shown to be a vital component of social control. However, the ways in which individuals manage to express themselves through dress or body adornment in spite of religious constraints are also discussed, and the text explores how identities can be negotiated within specific religious frameworks. Obedience and disobedience are symbolically played out in dress. Commitment to a community’s beliefs and mores, social control through dress, and strict conformity to codes of behavior indicate piety in most cases, often resulting in “fossilized fashion,” while deviation from the rules can indicate self-indulgence, rebellion, or even the flouting of community regulations. Anabaptists, Mormons, Jews, Muslims, and Roman Catholics, as well as members of African American churches appear in this book, with gender issues at the fore in many cases. Morality and dress codes within religions are often linked and anyone interested in learning more should read Aileen Ribeiro’s book, Dress and Morality, which follows a chronological framework from the classical world to the modern period, though it does not claim to be a history of dress. What is considered to be moral or immoral, permitted or taboo, differs considerably from one epoch to another. The flouting of dress codes and degree of bodily coverage can result in vociferously expressed moral indignation and sometimes fervent religious zeal. Her book embraces ideas such as body and soul, dress and disorder, shame and propriety, the notion of “evil” bodies, and dress that provokes lust and sin; it is replete with well-selected images and cartoons that illustrate these notions.

Texts on Dress and Specific Religions or Items of Clothing

This section includes publications that focus on a specific religion, for example Islam or Judaism, as well as monographs that emphasize a particular item of dress, such as the veil, the sari, or shoes. In recent years, Muslim women’s dress has generated much interest—as indicated by the books introduced first.

Visibly Muslim: Fashion, Politics, Faith by Emma Tarlo looks at why dress is such an important issue for Muslims, and why it has become a major topic of international concern. Tarlo examines how Muslims in the West are increasingly inclined to express their identity and faith through dress, whether that is through austere forms of the traditional black garment or creative new designs that incorporate colorful head scarves. Tarlo hones in on young British Muslims who look for clothes that they feel reflect their identities and perspectives of faith and freedom, beauty, and modesty, as well as the people who design those clothes. Multiculturalism and “hybrid” hijabs form part of the “refashioning” of Islam in the West. Based on ethnographic research she also explores the wider social and political effects of clothing choices, encompassing religion, sociology, cultural studies, anthropology, and fashion. The veil is a highly controversial symbol, which has sparked much debate both within Islamic culture and internationally. Western feminist commentators on the veil have tended to interpret its wearing as an obvious sign of patriarchal oppression. However, as anthropologist Fadwa El Guindi sets out to explain through textual research and in-depth fieldwork in Veil: Modesty, Privacy and Resistance, that the wearing of the veil has a long and complex history, which plays out in the contemporary world as being more often than not about resistance. Contemporary veiling has been embraced by many Arab women as both affirming their cultural identity and making a feminist statement about liberation from colonial legacies and opposition to Western influences. By voluntarily removing themselves from the male gaze, veiled women assert their traditional allegiance and preserve their sexual identity. Veiling is also representative of connections between body and community as well as with a sense of self, privacy, space, and the cultural construction of identity. Nevertheless, the veil also communicates rank and nuances in social status and social relations that convey insights into Arab culture.

Another scholar, sociologist Christian Joppke, in Veil: Mirror of Identity, discusses how the Islamic head scarf has become the subject of heated legal and political debate. France and Germany have legislated against it, and even the UK, long a champion of multiculturalism, has recently restricted the veil proper. Ever since homegrown Islamic terrorism struck Europe, these debates have become even more prominent, impassioned, and wide-ranging, with vital global importance. In this concise and well-written introduction to the politics of the veil in modern societies, Joppke examines why a piece of clothing could have led to such controversy. He dissects the multiple meanings of the Islamic head scarf and explores its links with the global rise of Islam, Muslim integration, and the retreat from multiculturalism. He argues that the head scarf functions as a mirror of identity, but one in which national and liberal identities overlap, exposing the paradox that while it may be an affront to liberal values, its suppression is equally illiberal. His argument can illuminate, challenge, and provoke readers.

For readers interested in Jewish dress, anthropologist Eric Silverman brings history alive through a lively and engaging account of Jewish dress as symbolic of religious commitment and devotion to God in his text A Cultural History of Jewish Dress. Each chapter brings out the meaning and symbolism of a certain historical epoch or a specific type of Jewish dress. Silverman’s text demonstrates how both Jews and non-Jews have debated and legislated Jewish attire, and the larger debates on dress within present-day Jewish communities. Answering questions such as what were biblical and rabbinic fashions, why Hassidic Jews wear black, why clothing was important to immigrant Jews in America, and how young, modern Jewish adults can be “young, hip and cool” while still maintaining their Jewish identity, albeit in some irreverent ways. Chapter titles such as “Straps, Fringes, Snails, and Shawls” and “Jewtilicious” provide a fun account of Jewish dress through the ages, as well as an informative one.

Jews and Shoes, an edited collection of articles compiled by Edna Nahshon, professor of Hebrew and theater, reveals the theological, historical, social, and economic aspects of the importance of shoes among Jews. Its multidisciplinary approach is arranged in four parts: Religion and the Bible, Memories and Commemoration, Ideology and Economics, and Theatre, Art and Film. Of particular interest to researchers investigating the interface between religion and dress is Part 1, which discusses the biblical shoe, the halitzah shoe, the tombstone shoe, and the Israeli shoe. However, other chapters are by no means devoid of this interface, with chapters in Part 2 comprising information on how to make a shoe, shoes and shoemakers in Yiddish language, and the Holocaust shoes as memorial experience. The two contributions in Part 3 are about the search of the wandering Jew, and shoes as a symbol of equality in Jewish society. Part 4, Theatre, Art and Film, contains four chapters on the fetishist’s shoe and the art of Bruno Schulz and Andrew Ingall, the artist’s shoe, the theatrical shoe, and the cinematic shoe. The focus on shoes as a lens through which to observe Jewish culture, identity, and religious history is highly original and informative, demonstrating how it is possible to learn so much about religion and culture through one item of dress. The authors come from backgrounds and disciplines as diverse as fashion, visual culture, history, anthropology, Bible and Talmud, and performance studies.

For those interested in exploring India’s iconic and ubiquitous item of dress, the sari, anthropologists Mukulika Banerjee and Daniel Miller explore the persistence, adaptability, and beauty of the sari in their text The Sari. Set within a broad context of social, political, and religious changes the book offers a portrait of the sari as a garment that not only clothes the body, but is sensually present to the wearer in all kinds of ways. Intimate cameos of the lives of women in present-day India are included, as well as the practicalities of wearing this particularly widespread Indian garment. This book is essential reading as a foundation book for further explorations of religion and dress in India.

Contextual Materials

Dress and Identity edited by dress scholars Mary Ellen Roach-Higgins, Joanne B. Eicher, and Kim K. P. Johnson, collects key readings on the relationship between an individual’s personal and cultural dress and identity. Presenting an interdisciplinary perspective with contributions from the fields of anthropology, sociology, social psychology, and women’s studies, as well as from research in textiles and clothing, they provide the context needed to understand how different identities can be created through dress choices. As members of particular religions can be easily identifiable through set dress codes, an understanding of theories relating to identity will serve as an excellent framework for research into dress and religion. The Meanings of Dress edited by dress scholars Kim Miller-Spillman, Andrew Reilly, and Patricia Hunt-Hurst includes many examples of dress from various disciplines, from anthropologist Horace Miner’s classic “Body Ritual among the Nacirema,” through topics on etiquette, hot underwear in Tehran, popular culture, the “sexy eyes” of Saudi women, and contemporary fashions of skin bleaching, Botox for men, modesty in postmodern America, and the larger topic of gender and identity. Chapter 7, specifically related to dress and religion, contains nine articles on the subject, with increased coverage of world religions. Other chapters, some peripheral to religion, nevertheless provide theoretical insights and frameworks applicable to religion and dress, such as Chapter 12, “Fashion and Fantasy,” particularly in light of contemporary new religions and quasi-religions. The third edition contains more theory than previous editions, as well as an increased emphasis on the male perspective.

For a broad overview of cultures in various geographical areas and different historical periods, Dress Sense: Emotional and Sensory Experiences of the Body and Clothes, edited by librarian Donald Clay Johnson and folklorist Helen Bradley Foster, articulates the cultural values that shape attitudes and approaches to dress. It explores the importance of the senses and emotions with regard to the way people dress, and how people attach value and significance to what they put on their bodies. Contributions vary from Greek traditional village dress to British imperial dress in India, and from the sexual power of women’s waist beads in India to contemporary cross-dressing and rebellious outfits for older people. Religious references are scattered throughout, especially in chapters on dress in various African regions, though the emphasis is not on religion but rather on the emotions and the senses.

For a more specific focus on gender and dress by art historian Ruth Barnes and Joanne Eicher, Dress and Gender: Making and Meaning in Cultural Context collects primarily ethnographic and historical articles from several geographical areas with a clear focus on gender identity as related to dress. For dress and religion specifically, see Julia Leslie’s “The Significance of Dress for the Orthodox Hindu Woman” and Suzanne Baizerman’s “The Jewish Kippa Sruga and the Social Construction of Gender in Israel.” Dressed to Impress: Looking the Part, edited by William Keenan, shows how the dressed body is a social body that is also central to the construction of identity. Not all chapters are restricted to a religious focus but churchgoers, Muslim schoolgirls, and monks are included as characteristic forms of displaying the dressed body for social visibility. Why do people choose to visibly distinguish themselves from others? What are the costs and benefits? How do “priestly” bodies inhabit a different milieu from the “stripper” body? Equally, how does the “gothic” body differ from the “Methodist” body? This text explains the ways in which the onlooker’s gaze can be reflected on to the wearer, demonstrating shock or antipathy, acceptance or rejection.

The Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion has much to offer readers interested in any aspect of dress. It is accessible for launching into the topic of dress for the first time, as well as highly useful for the well informed who may wish to explore a particular geographical area, item of dress, or view from another discipline. The cumulative index to be found in Volume 10 provides a comprehensive list under “Religion, dress and,” which allows readers to look for religious groups (e.g. Anabaptists, Buddhists) and geographic areas (Australia, China) in order to find relevant articles more quickly. Other terms/phrases can be searched within the cumulative index—such as “rites of passage,” or specific items of religious apparel—such as “robes” or “yarmulkes.” The following selection of articles is only a sample of the wealth of information contained within these ten volumes. Below are some that pertain specifically to religious beliefs. However, scattered throughout all the volumes are references to particular religions with regard to dress, or references that are peripheral to religion such as morality, or religions that offer political or social arguments surrounding a particular item of dress, for example the item of dress that is universally referred to as “the veil.”

In Volume 2: Latin America and the Caribbean, Susan Tselos, art historian and curator, writes on “Vodou Ritual Garments in Haiti.” Several authors provide articles or snapshots in Volume 3, The United States and Canada, such as dress scholars Jean Druesedow on “Amish, Mennonites, Hutterites, and Brethren,” Beverly Gordon on “Quakers and Shakers,” Annette Lynch on “Dress for Rites of Passage,” and Phyllis Tortora on “Old Believers” and “Religion and Dress.” Eric Silverman offers a snapshot from his anthropological perspective in “Identity and Gender in Traditional Jewish Dress.” Three articles are found in Volume 4: South and Southeast Asia by dress scholars Monisha Ahmed, Susan Conway, and Jasleen Dhamija on the topics of “Himalayan Buddhist Communities,” “Rites of Passage and Rituals in Laos, Vietnam, Thailand, and Cambodia,” and “Rites of Passage and Rituals in India,” respectively.

Volume 5: Central and Southwest Asia contains seven articles with a strong focus on Islamic dress primarily by anthropologists such as Fadwa El Guindi and Gillian Vogelsang-Eastwood, writing on politically correct dress (the hijab) and how the coming of Islam influenced dress as well what is worn for pilgrimages. Articles in the volume that cover believers of other faiths in that region are: “Jewish Dress in Central and Southwest Asia and the Diaspora” by Esther Juhasz, “Christian Secular, Monastic, and Liturgical Dress in the Eastern Mediterranean” by Karel Innemée, and “Snapshot: Dress of Shiites and Mystics,” by Ashgar Seyed-Gohrab. Articles in Volume 7: Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands include one by Lynne Hume on “Ceremonial and Religious Dress in Australia” and another by Sandra Heffernan, “Liturgical Robes in New Zealand.”

Europe has two volumes: Volume 8 on West Europe and Volume 9 on East Europe. A general article is found in the first, “Religion and Dress” by anthropologists Nigel Yates, Dan Cohn-Sherbok, and Dawoud El-Alami, as well as one by another anthropologist, Annelies Moors, on “Muslim Dress and the Head Scarf Debate.” A single article in the second volume by Pamela Smith is on “Jewish Dress.” Lynne Hume, in Volume 10, provides a cross-cultural view in “Dress and Religious Practices.”

References and Further Reading

Find in Library Ahmed Monisha. “Himalayan Buddhist Communities.” In the Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion, Volume 4, South Asia and Southeast Asia. Berg Fashion Library, 2010.

Find in Library Akinwumi Tunde, and Elisha P. Renne. ““Commemorative Textiles and Anglican Church History in Ondo, Nigeria”.” Textile 6, no. 2 (2008).

Find in Library Arthur L. B., ed. Religion, Dress and the Body. Oxford: Berg, 1999.

Find in Library Arthur L. B., ed. Undressing Religion: Commitment and Conversion from a Cross-Cultural Perspective. Berg Fashion Library, 2000.

Find in Library Awekotuku Ngahuia, Linda Nikora, and Mohi Rua. “Moko Māori: Skin Modification.” In the Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion, Volume 7, Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands. Berg Fashion Library, 2010.

Find in Library Banerjee M., and D. Miller. The Sari. Oxford: Berg, 2003.

Find in Library Barker Eileen. “A Comparative Exploration of Dress and the Presentation of Self as Implicit Religion.” In Dressed to Impress: Looking the Part, edited by William J. F. Keenan. Berg Fashion Library, 2001.

Find in Library Barnes R., and J. B. Eicher, eds. Dress and Gender: Making and Meaning in Cultural Context. Oxford: Berg, 1997 [1992].

Find in Library Conway Susan. “Rites of Passage and Rituals in Laos, Vietnam, Thailand, and Cambodia.” In the Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion, Volume 4, South Asia and Southeast Asia. Berg Fashion Library, 2010.

Find in Library Dhamija Jasleen. “Rites of Passage and Rituals in India.” In the Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion, Volume 4, South Asia and Southeast Asia. Berg Fashion Library, 2010.

Find in Library Dreusedow L.Snapshot: Amish, Mennonites, Hutterites, and Brethren.” In the Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion, Volume 3, The United States and Canada. Berg Fashion Library, 2010.

Find in Library Eicher Joanne. “Introduction to Global Perspectives.” In the Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion, Volume 10, Global Perspectives. Berg Fashion Library, 2010.

Find in Library El Guindi Fadwa. “Snapshot: Islam and Islamically Correct Dress (Hijab).” In the Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion, Volume 5, Central and Southwest Asia. Berg Fashion Library, 2010.

Find in Library El Guindi Fadwa. Veil: Modesty, Privacy and Resistance. Oxford: Berg, 1999.

Find in Library Entwistle Joanne, and Elizabeth Wilson, eds. Body Dressing. Berg Fashion Library, 2001.

Find in Library Fashion Theory: The Journal of Dress, Body and Culture. Edited by Valerie Steele.

Find in Library Goffman Erving. The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life. Garden City, NJ: Doubleday, 1959.

Find in Library Gordon Beverly. “Snapshot: Quakers and Shakers.” In the Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion, Volume 3, The United States and Canada. Berg Fashion Library, 2010.

Find in Library Heffernan Sandra. “Liturgical Robes in New Zealand.” In the Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion, Volume 7, Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands. Berg Fashion Library, 2010.

Find in Library Hughes Lauren. ““Weaving Imperial Ideas: Iconography and Ideology of the Inca Coca Bag”.” Textile 8, no. 2 (2010).

Find in Library Hume L.Ceremonial and Religious Dress in Australia.” In the Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion, Volume 7, Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands. Berg Fashion Library, 2010.

Find in Library Hume Lynne. “Dress and Religious Practices.” In the Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion, Volume 10, Global Perspectives. Berg Fashion Library, 2010.

Find in Library Hume L. The Religious Life of Dress: Global Fashion and Faith. London: Bloomsbury Academic, 2013.

Find in Library Innemée Karel. “Christian Secular, Monastic, and Liturgical Dress in the Eastern Mediterranean.” In the Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion, Volume 5, Central and Southwest Asia. Berg Fashion Library, 2010.

Find in Library Johnson D. C., and H. B. Foster, eds. Dress Sense: Emotional and Sensory Experiences of the Body and Clothes. Oxford: Berg, 2007.

Find in Library Jones Carla. ““Fashion and Faith in Urban Indonesia”.” Fashion Theory 11, nos. 2 and 3 (2007).

Find in Library Joppke C. Veil: Mirror of Identity. Cambridge, UK and Malden, MA: Polity, 2009.

Find in Library Juhasz Esther. “Jewish Dress in Central and Southwest Asia and the Diaspora.” In the Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion, Volume 5, Central and Southwest Asia. Berg Fashion Library, 2010.

Find in Library Keenan William. Dressed to Impress: Looking the Part. Oxford: Berg, 2001.

Find in Library Keenan William. ““From Friars to Fornicators: The Eroticization of Sacred Dress”.” Fashion Theory 3, no. 4 (1999).

Find in Library Lynch Annette. “Dress for Rites of Passage.” In the Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion, Volume 3, The United States and Canada. Berg Fashion Library, 2010.

Find in Library Miller-Spillman K. A., A. Reilly, and P. Hunt-Hurst, eds. The Meanings of Dress. New York and London: Fairchild Books, 2012 [2005].

Find in Library Moors Annelies. ““Fashionable Muslims: Notions of Self, Religion, and Society in Sanà”.” Fashion Theory 11, nos. 2 and 3 (2007).

Find in Library Moors Annelies. “Snapshot: Muslim Dress and the Head Scarf Debate.” In the Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion, Volume 8, West Europe. Berg Fashion Library, 2010.

Find in Library Nahshon E., ed. Jews and Shoes. Berg Fashion Library, 2008.

Find in Library Oxtoby G., and Alan F. Segal. A Concise Introduction to World Religions. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011.

Find in Library Ribeiro A. Dress and Morality. Oxford: Berg, 2003.

Find in Library Roach-Higgins M. E., J. B. Eicher, and K.K.P. Johnson, eds. Dress and Identity. New York: Fairchild Publications, 1995.

Find in Library Schick Irvin. “Fitrah: Temporary and Permanent Body Modifications for Muslims.” In the Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion, Volume 5, Central and Southwest Asia. Berg Fashion Library, 2010.

Find in Library Seyed-Gohrab Ashgar. “Snapshot: Dress of Shiites and Mystics.” In the Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion, Volume 5, Central and Southwest Asia. Berg Fashion Library, 2010.

Find in Library Silverman E. A Cultural History of Jewish Dress. London and New York: Berg, 2013.

Find in Library Silverman K.Snapshot: Identity and Gender in Traditional Jewish Dress.” In the Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion, Volume 3, The United States and Canada. Berg Fashion Library, 2010.

Find in Library Smith Pamela. “Jewish Dress.” In the Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion, Volume 9, East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus. Berg Fashion Library, 2010.

Find in Library Tarlo Emma. Visibly Muslim: Fashion, Politics, Faith. Oxford: Berg, 2010.

Find in Library Textile, The Journal of Cloth and Culture. Editors Catherine Harper and Doran Ross.

Find in Library Tselos S. “Vodou Ritual Garments in Haiti.” In the Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion, Volume 2, Latin America and the Caribbean. Berg Fashion Library, 2010

Find in Library Tortora Phyllis. “Religion and Dress.” In the Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion, Volume 3, The United States and Canada. Berg Fashion Library, 2010.

Find in Library Tortora Phyllis. “Snapshot: Old Believers.” In the Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion, Volume 3, The United States and Canada. Berg Fashion Library, 2010.

Find in Library Vogelsang-Eastwood Gillian. “The Coming of Islam and Its Influence on Dress.” In the Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion, Volume 5, Central and Southwest Asia. Berg Fashion Library, 2010.

Find in Library Vogelsang-Eastwood Gillian. “Snapshot: Islamic Pilgrimage Dress.” In the Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion, Volume 5, Central and Southwest Asia. Berg Fashion Library, 2010.

Find in Library Yates Nigel, Dan Cohn-Sherbok, Dawoud El-Alami. “Religion and Dress.” In the Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion, Volume 8, West Europe. Berg Fashion Library, 2010.