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Manolo Blahnik

Rio Ali

Source: Fashion Photography Archive 2015

Designer Biography

Katharine Hamnett

Amber Jane Butchart

Source: Fashion Photography Archive 2015

Designer Biography

Sophia Kokosalaki

Amber Jane Butchart

Source: Fashion Photography Archive 2015

Designer Biography

Monique Lhuillier

Stephanie Edith Herold

Source: Fashion Photography Archive 2015

Designer Biography

Florals

Tessa Maffucci

Source: Fashion Photography Archive 2015

Article

Floral designs are ubiquitous in fashion. They appear reliably with each new season, spring or fall, as designers attempt to find new ways to iterate this now traditional motif. The history of floral textiles is complex. Flower designs have been intimately tied up with colonialism and the convergence of cultures of dress; however, the patterns themselves are often seen in simplistic terms as signifying femininity or pastoral innocence. Florals can translate the beauty of the natural world onto th

Ribbons and Lace: Girls, Decorative Femininity and Androgyny

Masafumi Monden

Source: Japanese Fashion Cultures. Dress and gender in contemporary Japan 2015

Book chapter

‘There’s one thing about you,’ Maudie said. ‘You always look ladylike.’JeanRhys, Voyage in the Dark (London: Penguin Books, 2000 [1934]), p. 10. ‘Oh God,’ I said, ‘who wants to look ladylike?’

Book chapter

It is widely acknowledged that fashion is modern. If one adopts David Frisby’s definition of modernité as ‘the more general experience of the aestheticization of everyday life, as exemplified in the transitory qualities of an urban culture shaped by the imperatives of fashion, consumerism, and constant innovation,’ fashion is proto-typically modern. (Stewart 2008: xii)

Home Front Clothing Initiatives

Geraldine Howell

Source: Wartime Fashion. From Haute Couture to Homemade, 1939–1945 2012

Book chapter

Ladakh

Monisha Ahmed

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. South Asia and Southeast Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Situated in the upper reaches of the Himalayan and Karakoram mountain ranges, Ladakh is India’s high-altitude border region, characterized by an extraordinary desertlike landscape where barren mountains thrust toward an intensely blue sky, punctuated by green oases that reveal human habitation. Living in extreme weather conditions where temperatures drop to minus 58 degrees Fahrenheit (minus 50 degrees Celsius) in winter and rise to 104 degrees Fahrenheit (40 degrees Celsius)in summer, Ladakh’s i

Overview of Mongolia

Monisha Ahmed

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Walking down the main street in Ulan Bator, Mongolia’s capital, past gray, crumbling Soviet-era buildings, a woman wearing a blue silk del, or robe, contrasts with the robust man by her side in a sober, gray Western-style suit. Walking alongside them are women in skinny jeans, fitted T-shirts, and stiletto heels. But far from the city, a nomad wears his sheepskin robe, sitting astride his horse. Mongolia has many faces. Probably the most celebrated of these is Chinggis Khaan, better known by his

Dress of the Cook Islands

Kalissa Alexeyeff

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Cook Islands dress of the twenty-first century is a vibrant mixture of local, Western, and regional influences. Traces of the islands’ missionary and colonial history are also evident and reflect an ongoing incorporation of external styles and aesthetics. Since the Cook Islands gained independence in 1965, the revival of local dress practices of the past has been viewed as an important way of forging an independent nation-state. Traditional dress, primarily worn in performance contexts in the ear

Tweed

Fiona Anderson

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Tweed cloth originated in Scotland in the early nineteenth century. At that time, it was only made from woolen yarns in the twill weave. From the 1820s to the present, tweed has been characterized by a huge range of color and weave effects. The main account given for the origins of the name tweed is that it is based on a misreading of the Scottish word tweel or twill (which was the weave characteristic of Scottish woolens at that time) for tweed. By the 1840s, tweed was established as a term used

West Africa

Lisa Aronson

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Africa 2010

Encyclopedia entry

West African markets are well known for their tightly packed displays of textiles in rich arrays of colors and patterns, and tailors on their sewing machines can be heard everywhere sewing visually striking garments that seldom go unnoticed when worn in public. So vital and richly varied are textiles in West Africa that even prominent contemporary artists such as El Anatsui from Ghana and Nigeria and Yinka Shonibare from Nigeria are inspired by them as powerful mediums for discourse on historical

Pakistan

Nasreen Askari

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. South Asia and Southeast Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Pakistan, seat of one of the civilizations of the ancient world, was created as a country in 1947; historically, however, its location has made it a crucible in which influences from Greece, Turkey, Iran, Afghanistan, Central Asia, and China have fused with the indigenous traditions of the region. The regional dress and textile traditions of Pakistan, the Pathan, the Punjabi, the Baluch, and the Sindhi, have evolved a range of forms, techniques, and designs that is a distillation not only of loca

Introduction to Southeast Asia

Ruth Barnes

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. South Asia and Southeast Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Southeast Asia comprises two distinct areas, the mainland and an archipelago of islands extending from Sumatra to the Philippines and the Moluccas. Both the mainland and the archipelago have exceptionally rich traditions of adorning the human body. Dress acts as a social indicator, and dress requirements are associated with religious and social ceremonies. The earliest detailed representations of Southeast Asian dress come from religious edifices dating from the ninth century. Ordinary people’s d

The Wool Industry in Australia

Prudence Black and Anne Farren

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands 2010

Encyclopedia entry

That the wealth of Australia rode “on the sheep’s back” is a well-known expression. In particular, it has been Merino wool (a thick fine fleece suited to weaving into quality fabric) for the international and increasingly global clothing market that has been Australia’s most significant product. The Merino sheep has been selectively bred for over two hundred years and is recognized worldwide for its uniformly fine and soft fibers. While Australia is home to only a small proportion of the world’s

Dress of Vanuatu

Lissant Bolton and Jean Tarisesei

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Vanuatu is an archipelago of about eighty small islands in the southwestern Pacific. It is one of the most linguistically complex regions of the world: More than 113 languages are spoken in these islands by a population (at the start of the twenty-first century) of about 200,000. This linguistic diversity is matched by cultural diversity: Not just every island, but every district has had its own distinctive knowledge and practice, and often, its own distinctive dress styles. This diversity from p

Belgium

Karlijn Bronselaer

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Belgium played a vital role in the industrialization of the European textile industry. Belgian society changed very quickly due to industrialization during the first half of the nineteenth century. From about the 1820s on the fashionable silhouette in West Europe was the hourglass. Although the average Belgian had neither time nor money for fashion, improved production methods and sewing machines made corsets more affordable. Later, the Art Nouveau or Jugendstil movement (ca. 1890–1920), with its

Moldova

Jennifer Renea Cash

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The history of dress in Moldova requires a brief historical introduction. At the beginning of the twenty-first century, Moldova refers to the Republic of Moldova, which in its turn is best understood by distinguishing two subregions: Bessarabia and Transnistria. The ethnic majority in both regions is Moldovan (that is, Romanian), and many customs and traditions, including those related to dress and adornment, are shared between the two regions. Nevertheless, the political history of the regions w

Ethnic Groups of Arunachal Pradesh, Northeast India

Sucheta Sen Chaudhuri and Sarit Kumar Chaudhuri

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. South Asia and Southeast Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Arunachal Pradesh, “land of the dawn-lit mountains,” is India’s easternmost state. It shares a border with Assam to the south and Nagaland to the southeast; Bhutan lies to the west, Myanmar to the east, and Tibet to the north. Briefly designated as the North East Frontier Agency (1954–1972), this area has remained, culturally and geographically, a meeting point of civilizations: Chinese, Central Asian, Southeast Asian, and Indian.

Textile Manufacture in Taiwan

Yu Cheng-Ping and Wu Chi-Jen

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Before the Qing dynasty (1644–1911) ceded Taiwan to Japan in 1895, Taiwan’s economy was based on agriculture. Its environment was not suitable for planting cotton or raising sheep. Other than domestic, self-sufficient textile production, there was no textile industry. The demand for textiles relied on imports from the mainland. This changed radically beginning in 1896 with the Japanese colonization of Taiwan. Taiwan’s textile industry can be divided into five periods: (1) Japanese colonial period

Ireland

Síle de Cléir

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The situation regarding the various types of dress in Ireland in the period between the beginning of the nineteenth and the end of the twentieth centuries is a complex one. It is useful, perhaps, in this context to see dress in Ireland at this time as a continuum: folk dress at one end, characterized by locally produced fabrics and traditional aesthetics and deeply embedded in a local social and cultural context; and fashionable dress at the other, with a wider choice of materials and styles conn

Miao National Minority

Gina Corrigan

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Today, the Miao ethnic minority live in southwestern China, their population totaling 8.9 million. Miao origins and migrations are controversial and poorly documented, but we know that attempts to subdue them have been difficult. Miao in remote mountain regions developed many garments, expressing cultural identity. In 2000 a book published in China illustrated 173 different styles of Miao dress. Following the death of Mao Zedong in 1976, the female population in the countryside again adopted trad

Li National Minority

Anne Csete

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The Li national minority of Hainan Island, with a population of 1.24 million, is officially divided into five subgroups: Qi, Ha, Sai, Run, and Meifu. Li dress varies among these subgroups, but common elements include a sarong-like tube skirt, female tattooing, and methods of traditional cloth production. Han cloth and thread were incorporated into Li weaving and embroidery by at least the Song dynasty (960–1279), when significant numbers of Li began to adopt Chinese dress and customs. Li weaving

Accessories

Valerie Cumming

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

There is a debate about whether accessories are “essential” or “additional to dress.” From 1800 onwards, there are relatively few new accessories; some gradually disappeared, and others became increasingly important, their roles reflecting a changing world. Many times those actually producing these goods could themselves afford only basic, practical items. Certain crafts were more suited to mechanized production—knitted goods like stockings and printed fabrics—others, like millinery, beaded bags,

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