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Ali MacGraw

Anne Reimers

Source: Fashion Photography Archive 2015

Article

American actress Ali MacGraw’s outfits and styling in the classic weepie Love Story (1970) were defining for a generation. Her look came to represent the aspirational wardrobe and beauty ideal of the upper middle-class, Ivy League university “preppy,” regularly referenced by American fashion brands. MacGraw’s offscreen style, more bohemian and artistic with floaty dresses and scarves, was equally influential. The designer she is most closely associated with, however, is Halston, and his brand of

“The Language of the Fan”: Pushing the Boundaries of Middle-class Womanhood

Ariel Beaujot

Source: Victorian Fashion Accessories 2012

Book chapter

In the nineteenth century the British tried to revive the art of fanmaking in part in order to address what Victorians had come to call the “surplus women question.” This debate, which centered around definitions of what type of woman a middle-class lady should be and what her place should be within society, came to the fore because of statistics revealed by the 1851 Census. Victorians exaggerated the census data in order to emphasize the seriousness of having a population of women who had no pla

Narratives are a way for human beings of the past and present to understand their experiences and guide their actions.Somers, “The Narrative Constitution of Identity,” 613–14. An important metanarrative of Victorian society was the advent of democracy and constitutional government. Every British school child of the nineteenth century knew the progressive narrative of the rise of parliamentary democracy beginning with the Magna Carta, passing through the “Glorious Revolution,” and ending with the

“The Real Thing”: The Celluloid Vanity Set and the Search for Authenticity

Ariel Beaujot

Source: Victorian Fashion Accessories 2012

Book chapter

By the end of the nineteenth century it was generally understood that the elephant population was in serious crisis because of the ivory trade.R. F.du Toit, S. N.Stuart, and D.H.M.Cumming, African Elephants and Rhinos: Sattus Survey and Conservation Action Plan (Gland, Switzerland: Nature Conservation Bureau, 1990), 3. Between 1800 and 1850 ivory imports into the United Kingdom increased from 119 tons to 458 tons.AbdulSheriff, Slaves, Spices and Ivory in Zanzibar: Integration of an East African C

Conclusion

Ariel Beaujot

Source: Victorian Fashion Accessories 2012

Book chapter

“The Beauty of Her Hands”: The Glove and the Making of Middle-class Womanhood

Ariel Beaujot

Source: Victorian Fashion Accessories 2012

Book chapter

Victorians considered it improper for a woman to appear in public without her gloves and women of the middle and upper classes were encouraged to put on their gloves before crossing the threshold into the street. Women wore gloves in church, at the theater, on promenade, to dances, while shopping, and even to dinner parties hosted in other people’s homes.Anon., Etiquette for All; or, Rules of Conduct for Every Circumstance in Life: With the Laws, Rules, Precepts, and Practices of Good Society (Gl

Azerbaijan—Urban Dress, the 1920s to the Twenty-First Century

Djurdja Bartlett

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The Azeri (Azerbaijani ethnicity) aristocracy and the nascent bourgeoisie and intelligentsia gradually introduced elements of Western styles into their dress beginning in the mid-nineteenth century, when the region was still part of the Russian tsarist empire. Europeanized dress was one of the elements within a wider discourse that challenged the old way of life and its long-held traditions and proposed modernization in all the fields of society. A new role for women was on the agenda of secular

Tea Gown

Anne Bissonnette

Source: The Berg Companion to Fashion 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Trickle-Down

Susan B. Kaiser

Source: The Berg Companion to Fashion 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Class, Work, and Dress

Alexandra Kim

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

During the nineteenth century, clothing in West Europe was inextricably linked to a person’s class and occupation. Dress was constantly used to determine a person’s social status. Although there were obvious variations in occupational dress across the Continent, a worker’s clothing—whether in the countryside or the city—would have clearly indicated his or her place in the social hierarchy. Changing work patterns, a growing informality, and the fragmentation of the class structure in the twentieth

Social Class and Clothing

Katalin Medvedev

Source: The Berg Companion to Fashion 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Social class is a system of multilayered hierarchy among people. Historically, social stratification emerged as the consequence of surplus production. This surplus created the basis for economic inequality, and in turn prompted a ceaseless striving for upward mobility among people in the lower strata of society.

Hungary: Urban Dress up to 1948

Katalin Medvedev

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Hungary remained feudalist until the second half of the nineteenth century, delaying the growth of Hungarian urban fashion. Hungary is perhaps best known for colorful ethnic styles, the most renowned being male gala dress (díszmagyar). However, the elite kept abreast of European trends. In the first half of the nineteenth century, Hungary, within the Hapsburg Empire, was predominantly agricultural; fashionable town dress was mostly German-inspired. Pest and Buda—separate cities until 1873—had dis

Jewelry

Gabriele Mentges

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Jewelry, an anglicized version of the old French word jouel, means, in its broadest sense, body adornment. This definition is also valid for clothing, and both make the human body culturally visible. Like dress, jewelry belongs to particular cultural bodily techniques whose interpretation depends on culture, time, and space. However, clothing and jewelry differ profoundly in regard to their practices and meaning. The differences in regard to dress and jewelry concern, first, material and shape; s

England

Naomi E.A. Tarrant

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

In 1800, the people of England dressed in the general West European clothing style that was worn by all fashionable people. Wealth determined what a person could afford to wear but not the style. There was no folk dress, so the general impression was that wealthy people wore the same styles as their workers, with only the quality showing the difference. The poor acquired garments from secondhand clothes dealers or as gifts from wealthier family members or friends, charities, and employers, as wel

The Netherlands

José Teunissen

Translated by Michael Gibbs

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

In the seventeenth century the Netherlands played a prominent role in fashion, transforming Spanish Catholic court fashion into sober, monochrome clothing symbolizing Calvinist Dutch burgher culture. Around 1800 most Dutch people wore regional dress; a small elite followed urban Parisian fashions, but several years behind. The rising bourgeoisie in large cities already tended to break away from traditional clothing with obvious class distinctions, yet frugality was always regarded as a principal

Hungary: Urban Dress, 1948 to 2000

Tibor Valuch

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Dress customs in Hungary changed markedly at the turn of the 1950s. The Hungarian Fashion Designers’ Union stated that a modern designer’s task was not to dream up dress fantasy for a few stylish ladies, but to design attractive, practical clothes for millions of working women. Magazines for woman offered practical advice on altering outdated bourgeois clothes and suggested that the dress of today’s woman was practical, healthy, and pretty, and that the big stores served the interests of working

Wool Cloth and Gender: The Use of Woollen Cloth in Women's Dress in Britain, 1865–85

Lou Taylor

Source: Classic and Modern Writings on Fashion 2nd Edition 2009

Book chapter

This study examines the design development of heavyweight woollen fashion fabric used in the new tailored outdoor garments for middle- and upper-class women's wear in Britain in the 1865–85 period.

The Invisible Flâneur

Elizabeth Wilson

Source: Classic and Modern Writings on Fashion 2nd Edition 2009

Book chapter

In particular, female virtue and respectability were hard to preserve in this promiscuous environment. ‘Who are these somebodies whom nobody knows?’ famously enquired William Acton in his survey of prostitution, published in 1857; and prostitution was the great fear of the age. Evangelical reformers in the Britain of the 1830s and 1840s wrote impassioned tracts in which they described this, the ‘great social evil’, as a plague that was rotting the very basis of society, and they campaigned for it

Chic Versus Geek: Locating Nation, Locating Taste

L. Alison Goodrum

Source: The National Fabric. Fashion, Britishness, Globalization 2005

Book chapter

Deliberate imperfections in clothing – shredded fabrics, frayed edging, holes and ladders – signal that a trash aesthetic has gained momentumSee, for example, Winwood (1998a,b) or the collections of Margiela, Demeulemeester, Bet, Lang or van Noten. Note, however, that this latest stylistic tendency towards slashing and shredding is by no means an entirely novel concept. Recall the discussion (chapter 1) of punk’s aggressive ripping of everything from fishnet tights to slogan T-shirts during the l

Classy Lingerie

Merl Storr

Source: Latex and Lingerie. Shopping for Pleasure at Ann Summers 2003

Book chapter

Sexual properties are as inseparable from class properties as the yellowness of a lemon is from its acidity […]. This is why there are as many ways of realizing femininity as there are classes and class fractions. (Bourdieu 1984: 107–8)

‘Elegance, Comfort, Durability!’ Class, Contours, and Corsetry

Leigh Summers

Source: Bound to Please. A History of the Victorian Corset 2001

Book chapter

an excellent tournure [could] be had for so little money, that even one’s maid-servants [could] walk into any corsetmakers and buy a figure, fit for a lady of the highest respectability, for a mere trifle.W.Mayhew (ed.), The Greatest Plague of Life or the Adventures of A Lady in Search of a Good Servant by one who has been ‘almost worried to death’, David Bogue, London, 1847, p. 86.

Corsetry and Invisibility of Maternal Body

Leigh Summers

Source: Bound to Please. A History of the Victorian Corset 2001

Book chapter

One of the strongest reasons for the adoption of the corset, though it is not commonly avowed, is the belief that it conduces beauty and symmetry of figure. Slender forms are usually praised, and chiefly because they are associated with the litheness and undeveloped graces of youth.Gould-WoolsonAbba, Dress Reform: A Series of Lectures Delivered in Boston, On Dress As It Affects The Health of Women, Robert Brothers, Boston, 1874, p. 208.

Conclusion

Leigh Summers

Source: Bound to Please. A History of the Victorian Corset 2001

Book chapter

Wearily Moving Her Needle: Army Officers’ Wives and Sewing in the Nineteenth- Century American West

Julie A. Campbell

Source: The Culture of Sewing. Gender, Consumption and Home Dressmaking 1999

Book chapter

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