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Morocco

Cynthia J. Becker

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Africa 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Morocco has long been a crossroads between Europe, the Middle East, and sub-Saharan Africa, and dress reflects the richness of its history as well as its geographic and cultural diversity. Forty to sixty percent of the Moroccan population is Berber, and many Berbers have retained their indigenous language. After the Phoenicians and then the Romans settled in Morocco and encountered the Berbers, Arabs moved into Morocco in the seventh century, founding the city of Fes and gradually converting the

The Kaftan and Its Origins

Charlotte Jirousek

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Central and Southwest Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The term kaftan usually refers to a long, unfitted coat of Turkic, Persian, or Central Asian origin. Many variations on front-opening coats originated with Central Asian horse-riding nomads. These nomads were both Uro-Altaic and Indo-European in origin. The coats were worn in layers over loose trousers that protected the legs from chafing. Layered garments were also useful in a very changeable climate. The earliest examples of the wearing of kaftan-like coats are to be found in graves of early no

Subcultural Dress

David Muggleton and Dunja Brill

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

A subculture can be defined as a group with particular shared cultural features that distinguish it clearly from other subcultures and both the specific milieu (parent culture) and wider society (dominant culture) from which it emerges. The definition of culture on which this notion of a subculture is based is borrowed from anthropology and is taken to mean a whole way of life of a society or particular section thereof, depending on the level of analysis. A subculture can therefore be seen as a d

Poland: Urban Dress up to 1900

Anna Straszewska

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus 2010

Encyclopedia entry

In the early sixteenth century, Renaissance styles became popular in Poland, with Eastern influences emerging from the union between the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. Hungarian connections were likewise significant, Hungary being influenced by the Orient through the Ottoman Empire. During the sixteenth century, Polish-Lithuanian noblemen started adopting Oriental attire called “Sarmatian dress,” believing themselves descendants of the ancient Sarmatians who, according to Pli

Hausa in Nigeria and Diaspora

Norma H. Wolff

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Africa 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The Hausa are spread across West Africa but are concentrated in the arid savanna regions of northwestern Nigeria and adjoining Niger, an area referred to as Hausaland. The Hausa language, spoken as a native tongue by an estimated twenty-two million people, is the most widely spoken language in sub-Saharan Africa and is a lingua franca to over fifty million. While basically an agricultural society, the Hausa are best known for their control over long-distance trade networks of West Africa. Because

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