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Sneakers as a Symbol of Manhood: Wearing Masculinity on Their Feet

Yuniya Kawamura

Source: Sneakers. Fashion, Gender, and Subculture, 2018, Berg Fashion Library

Book chapter

There is a consensus among dress and fashion scholars that human footwear was not always gendered, but there are different accounts as to when footwear became gender-specific. The distinction between ladies’ shoemakers and men’s shoemakers in the eighteenth century clearly indicates that footwear was gendered.

Location Factors

Brenda Sternquist and Elizabeth B. Goldsmith

Source: International Retailing, 3rd Edition, 2018, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter + STUDIO

After studying this chapter, you should be able to:

Trends in Fashion Buying

David Shaw and Dimitri Koumbis

Source: Fashion Buying. From Trend Forecasting to Shop Floor, 2nd Edition, 2017, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter

Buyers help to set up a number of promotional retail activities, with the aim of achieving a higher gross margin each season while moving units at a more rapid rate. Many of these promotions typically entail some level of discount pricing, but there are also other promotional activities that can help to drive sales without compromising the overall pricing strategy as set by the buying and merchandising teams.

Management for the Retailer

Michele M. Granger

Source: The Fashion Industry and Its Careers: An Introduction, 3rd Edition, 2015, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter

Regional store managers, also known as area or district managers, are responsible for directing the retail stores of a particular company that are located in a particular area of the country. An international store manager supervises store sales and staff performance in a different country, or group of countries, not in the company’s country of residence. Whether in the United States or abroad, these regional managers are responsible for the smooth operation and profitability of the company, as w

Elle MacPherson

Stephanie Talbot

Source: Fashion Photography Archive, 2015, Fashion Photography Archive

Article

Australian Elle Macpherson is a leading model, actress, television host, and businesswoman. After starring as a wholesome, bikini-clad free spirit in a 1982 TV commercial for the soft drink Tab, a career in modeling beckoned. Macpherson went on to work consistently throughout the 1980s for the most prestigious fashion titles and is best known for her alliance with the publication Sports Illustrated. In 1989 she appeared on the cover of Time magazine, which gave her the apposite nickname “The Body

Christy Turlington

Stephanie Talbot

Source: Fashion Photography Archive, 2015, Fashion Photography Archive

Article

Christy Turlington is a leading American model, humanitarian campaigner, and filmmaker. She was sixteen when she officially joined the agency Ford Models, and two years later moved to New York City to model full-time. One of her first major campaigns was for Calvin Klein’s Eternity fragrance in 1988; she is also known for her contracts with cosmetics giant Maybelline and designer Giorgio Armani, and alliances with Chanel, Yves Saint Laurent, Prada, Valentino, Versace, Louis Vuitton, Marc Jacobs,

Naomi Campbell

Stephanie Talbot

Source: Fashion Photography Archive, 2015, Fashion Photography Archive

Article

Naomi Campbell is a leading British model. She became a cover girl before she was sixteen and was soon being hired by the biggest names in fashion. Campbell appeared on an iconic monochrome cover of British Vogue with Christy Turlington, Linda Evangelista, Cindy Crawford, and Tatjana Patitz in January 1990. This collective had reached the rank of “supermodel,” cementing their pulling power and defining a fashion history moment. Famously, Campbell, who is of African-Jamaican descent, has been the

Cindy Crawford

Stephanie Talbot

Source: Fashion Photography Archive, 2015, Fashion Photography Archive

Article

Cindy Crawford is a leading American model, actress, television host, entrepreneur, and businesswoman. She began modeling at sixteen, and in 1986 signed with the main New York agency of Elite Model Management, thus catapulting her career. Crawford’s thirty-year reign as a supermodel and a household name has been varied, extensive, and illustrious. She is the epitome of fashion powerhouse turned empire, a model who seized business opportunities and simultaneously turned herself into a brand.

Social Responsibility and Innovation in the Sewn Products Industry

Connie Ulasewicz

Source: Sustainable Fashion What’s Next?. A Conversation about Issues, Practices and Possibilities, 2nd Edition, 2015, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter + STUDIO

CONNIE ULASEWICZ, PHD, is an international consultant focusing on issues of socially responsible manufacturing practices and product reuse. She engages with students as a professor at San Francisco State University and with industry professionals through PeopleWearSF (www.peoplewearsf.org). “Fashion is about change,” she says. “If sustainable design and development are our goals, then let us engage thoughtfully and intelligently as we participate in changing what is considered fashionable.”

Entrepreneur Endeavors

Melissa G. Carr and Lisa Hopkins Newell

Source: Guide To Fashion Entrepreneurship. The Plan, The Product, The Process, 2014, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter

Entrepreneurs are vital contributors in all segments of the fashion industry. Increasingly, many professionals are choosing entrepreneurship to express their creative voice. An ever-changing economy has sparked a renewed interest in developing and creating products and services. Product diversification has become steadily embraced by consumers. This grants an opportunity for the creative expression of entrepreneurs in the marketplace. As a burgeoning entrepreneur with a new venture, identifying o

A Moving Target

Melissa G. Carr and Lisa Hopkins Newell

Source: Guide To Fashion Entrepreneurship. The Plan, The Product, The Process, 2014, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter

Most often, entrepreneurs have an innovative product or service in mind prior to starting their business. A primary step for an entrepreneur is to develop the target market by conducting market research. This is essential because the best ideas can fail if there is not a desire for the product in the marketplace. Market research is the process of gathering, analyzing, and interpreting information about a market, a product, or service to be offered for sale in that market. Market research also con

Brand Personification

Melissa G. Carr and Lisa Hopkins Newell

Source: Guide To Fashion Entrepreneurship. The Plan, The Product, The Process, 2014, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter

A strong brand has incredible power—not just in how it is perceived in the world, but also in how it redefines the competitive landscape, connects with prospects and influencers, creates memorable experiences, builds lasting relationships, and helps entrepreneurs and corporate organizations better manage people, resources, and profits. The following images evoke the power and presence of internationally recognized brands (Figures 3.1, 3.2, 3.3, 3.4, and 3.5).

Inspiration + Ingenuity

Melissa G. Carr and Lisa Hopkins Newell

Source: Guide To Fashion Entrepreneurship. The Plan, The Product, The Process, 2014, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter

A preemptive step for a fashion entrepreneur is to examine the framework of fashion and deconstruct the unpredictable nature of it. Although it vacillates on the axis of change and innovation, fashion can be comprehended and forecasted if intensely tracked and intimately followed from season to season. Fashion is immediate and competitive. Designers consistently manipulate fabrics, silhouettes, colors, textures, and other details to manifest their creative voice. Albeit individualized by brand, e

Strategic Sourcing

Melissa G. Carr and Lisa Hopkins Newell

Source: Guide To Fashion Entrepreneurship. The Plan, The Product, The Process, 2014, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter

Not all fashion brand entrepreneurs can sew, but every fashion brand entrepreneur has an idea and vision of what niche product to create. If, in fact, an entrepreneur does have the ability to produce her own products, there is still a need for outsourcing all or some of the work. Strategic sourcing refers to finding the most cost-effective way to manufacture one’s product, either locally or in a foreign country. International sourcing is used to provide mass volume to retailer needs comapred to l

Pricing the Product

Melissa G. Carr and Lisa Hopkins Newell

Source: Guide To Fashion Entrepreneurship. The Plan, The Product, The Process, 2014, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter

Understanding how to price a product will drive the success of the company. Successful entrepreneurs have a comprehensive understanding of three price components: cost, wholesale, and manufacturer’s suggested retail price (MSRP).

Commerce Checklist

Melissa G. Carr and Lisa Hopkins Newell

Source: Guide To Fashion Entrepreneurship. The Plan, The Product, The Process, 2014, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter

Creating a stellar prototype or actual product is the starting line for the launch phase. Proactive entrepreneurs will set the trajectory for success with a well-developed sales forecast and collateral material to support the selling and exposure of the product (Case Study 7.1).

Go-to-Market Strategy

Melissa G. Carr and Lisa Hopkins Newell

Source: Guide To Fashion Entrepreneurship. The Plan, The Product, The Process, 2014, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter

Entrepreneurs usually make the sales projections. Sales projections, or sales forecasts, are the company’s plan for future sales. It is the basis for determining future growth, expenses, profits, and staffing. The sales forecast is essentially an educated guess, based on knowledge of the company, the market, and any external factors, such as economic outlook, that may affect sales.

Direct and Indirect Sales

Melissa G. Carr and Lisa Hopkins Newell

Source: Guide To Fashion Entrepreneurship. The Plan, The Product, The Process, 2014, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter

A direct market channel is any conduit that connects the product producer to the end user. In all situations, there is no intermediary involved. It is the touch point of a business-to-consumer relationship. Direct market distribution allows the entrepreneur the opportunity to develop relationships with the product’s target market This can provide insightful interaction and feedback to respond to the needs and wants of the customer. Furthermore, the entrepreneur will yield the full retail price, l

The Buyer’s Mind

Melissa G. Carr and Lisa Hopkins Newell

Source: Guide To Fashion Entrepreneurship. The Plan, The Product, The Process, 2014, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter

The key to a successful business venture is to make sure that the brand will fit the retailer. The way to determine this is to become a customer by going into the store or shopping online, depending on the business. The brand must fit into the environment of the retailer. Figure 10.1 shows a boutique and its atmosphere. As a customer, one must:

Untangling the Web

Melissa G. Carr and Lisa Hopkins Newell

Source: Guide To Fashion Entrepreneurship. The Plan, The Product, The Process, 2014, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter

“Brands are changing the way they are handling their business. In the past, the main focus has been on product, promotion, and price. This focus is still important, but emphasis is now being given to commerce content, connection, community, and conversation,”DavidLipke. 2012. “VF Corp’s Karen Murray on Brand Evolution,” WWD, Apr. 04. Accessed Aug. 13, 2012. http://www.wwd.com/menswear-news/retail-business/vf-corps-karen-murray-on-brand-evolution-5843651. according to Karen Murray ofVF Corp. The r

The Marketing Plan

Melissa G. Carr and Lisa Hopkins Newell

Source: Guide To Fashion Entrepreneurship. The Plan, The Product, The Process, 2014, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter

A successful entrepreneur has an objective, strategy and tactic for implementation of his or her marketing plan. An objective is a goal that can be achieved within a set and expected timeframe with resources. It fundamentally explains the goal. A strategy draws from market research and includes the product mix plan to achieve maximum profit potential. It fundamentally explains the plan of how the goal will be met. A tactic is the advantageous action to meet the goals of a plan. It explains what d

The Action Plan

Melissa G. Carr and Lisa Hopkins Newell

Source: Guide To Fashion Entrepreneurship. The Plan, The Product, The Process, 2014, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter

Although business plans can vary in style and length, there are key components that are considered static: an executive summary, a description of the business, the market analysis, competition, management, marketing, sales, and financial projections.

Trade Tools

Melissa G. Carr and Lisa Hopkins Newell

Source: Guide To Fashion Entrepreneurship. The Plan, The Product, The Process, 2014, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter

Once the market has been researched and the product niche has been developed, the next step is building the foundation of the business. Businesses can be formed in different business entities: alone, with a partner, or with multiple partners. When beginning a business, the form of the business entity needs to be established. The business entity will determine which type of income tax return to file. The most common forms of business are the sole proprietorship, partnership, corporation, and S cor

Strategic Growth

Melissa G. Carr and Lisa Hopkins Newell

Source: Guide To Fashion Entrepreneurship. The Plan, The Product, The Process, 2014, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter

Strategic growth is essential to understanding the dynamic timing of the business—knowing when to expand or exit the business. As sales begin to climb, the natural progression is seemingly to multiply what is fundamentally successful in a business, whether it is new product or physical space; entrepreneurs often face junctures of growth. Growth can be a detriment or success to a business. An entrepreneur should have the insight to understand the various strategies that provide stability for profi

Fashion Entrepreneurship: Starting and Developing the Business

Henry Welt

Source: Fashion Law. A Guide for Designers, Fashion Executives, and Attorneys, 2nd Edition, 2014, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter

Over the past decade the business press has reported on the success of a number of fashion start-ups in which designers or founders have launched traditional fashion businesses. More recently, though, the industry has witnessed a boom in “fashion tech” start-ups, businesses in which young entrepreneurs exploit emerging technologies to provide value to the fashion industry.

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