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Red or Dead

Elizabeth Kutesko

Source: Fashion Photography Archive 2015

Designer Biography

Home Front Clothing Initiatives

Geraldine Howell

Source: Wartime Fashion. From Haute Couture to Homemade, 1939–1945 2012

Book chapter

Polish Urban Dress in Transition from Socialism to Post-Socialism

Bogna Dowgiałło and Agnieszka Burska

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Material poverty and dramatically changed social structures influenced most Polish dress in the immediate postwar period. Because ethnic minorities had been either deported or exterminated and because both the Nazis and the Soviets had taken steps to eliminate the prewar elite, Polish society had become nearly homogenous.

Secondhand Clothing

Karen Tranberg Hansen

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Global Perspectives 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Secondhand clothing constitutes a global market of commerce and consumption that has a long but changing history with complex links to garment production, tailoring, and couture. In Europe and North America, secondhand clothing was an important source of clothing well into the nineteenth century, until mass production and growing prosperity enabled more and more people to purchase brand-new rather than previously worn garments. During Europe’s imperial expansion, the trade in secondhand clothing

Ecological Issues in Dress

Jana M. Hawley

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. The United States and Canada 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Ecological concerns relating to dress arise at various points in the processes used to manufacture textiles and apparel and also as a result of the use of those products. These concerns are similar in both the United States and Canada, and the solutions to these problems are much the same in both countries.

Secondhand Clothing

Heike Jenss

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The term secondhand clothing connotes garments that enter a second or new circle of use after they have been worn or used by a previous owner. The handing down, sale, and reuse of previously worn garments have been common practices throughout the history of dress. Even into the twentieth century, garments were expensive goods and often a family investment that was passed on to the next generation or traded and exchanged for other goods. With the wider accessibility of fashion and the acceleration

Dress and the Art Trade

Stephanie Lake

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Global Perspectives 2010

Encyclopedia entry

In the late 1990s, an elite secondary market for twentieth-century clothing burst onto the fashion and art collecting scenes. Vintage clothing began to be regarded as an important art and expression of individuality, and collecting it was endorsed by celebrity tastemakers wearing everything from couture gowns to vintage concert T-shirts. Reaching far beyond historical dress and celebrity memorabilia and even beyond provenance, a cult of vintage fashion became big business. The most storied auctio

Vintage Dress

Maria Mackinney-Valentin

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Global Perspectives 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The term vintage generally refers to the revived use of certain secondhand clothes, shoes, and accessories primarily originating from the twentieth century. From being a subcultural phenomenon in the mid-1990s, vintage became a mainstream trend in Euro-American markets around the beginning of the twenty-first century. Vintage can be seen as a paradoxical fashion phenomenon in the sense that it assumes durable qualities similar to those of vintage cars and wine, while fashion is often defined by t

Globalization and Dress

Margaret Maynard

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Global Perspectives 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The trading of articles of dress, cloth, body adornments, precious stones, oils, and perfumes across wide areas of the globe, whether by sea, river, or overland routes, has taken place for centuries. All manner of cultural transfers and modifications of dress have eventuated because of migrations, diasporic movements, and subjugation of peoples. Something very different, though, is the globalization of dress, the increasing dominance of mass-produced standardized clothing across the world, which

Used Clothing in the Philippines

B. Lynne Milgram

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. South Asia and Southeast Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Traders and consumers in the Philippines use the increasing imports of secondhand clothing to fashion new forms of identity and new options in work. Global exports of secondhand clothing from North America and Europe to countries in Asia and Africa have expanded rapidly since the 1990s, with surpluses of clothing growing in Northern Hemisphere countries, and with the liberalization of Southern Hemisphere economies that gave people more access to Western goods generally. In the Philippines, such u

Subcultural Dress

David Muggleton and Dunja Brill

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

A subculture can be defined as a group with particular shared cultural features that distinguish it clearly from other subcultures and both the specific milieu (parent culture) and wider society (dominant culture) from which it emerges. The definition of culture on which this notion of a subculture is based is borrowed from anthropology and is taken to mean a whole way of life of a society or particular section thereof, depending on the level of analysis. A subculture can therefore be seen as a d

Burkina Faso

Christopher D. Roy

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Africa 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Burkina Faso is located at the crossroads of several important trade routes that cross West Africa from the Sahara to the old Gold Coast, and from the Inland Delta of the Niger to the former Slave Coast. The peoples of Burkina have always participated actively in the long-distance trade in salt, kola nuts, cotton cloth, and gold. The Mossi and other people in central Burkina speak Voltaic languages that are very closely related to the languages of northern Ghana. The clothing of Voltaic peoples i

Dressing the Body in the Western Desert, Australia

Diana Young

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The accounts of Aboriginal people themselves and other historical documentation suggest that from the time indigenous people came into contact with European clothes and other textiles such as blankets and woolen yarns, they were highly desirous of them. That period of contact was later in Central Australia than elsewhere (except perhaps eastern Arnhem Land). In the Western Desert, the area south and west of what came to be called Alice Springs on Arrernte country, it was as late as the 1950s and

Other People's Clothes? The International Secondhand Clothing Trade and Dress Practices in Zambia

Karen Tranberg Hansen

Source: Classic and Modern Writings on Fashion 2nd Edition 2009

Book chapter

In much of the West today, second-hand clothing makes up fringe, or niche, markets. Income distribution, purchasing power, affordable mass-produced garments and apparel, and concerns with fashion have reduced the need for large segments of the population to purchase used clothing. But well into the nineteenth century, used clothing constituted the effective market for much of the population except the very rich. Still in many countries in the Third World today, where the cost factor is enormously

Developing Consumerism and the Ready-made Clothing Trade in Britain, 1750–1800

Beverly Lemire

Source: Classic and Modern Writings on Fashion 2nd Edition 2009

Book chapter

The Stationers' Company had obtained a monopoly for the publication of women's almanacs in 1704 and they produced The Ladies' Diary or The Women's Almanack. In 1750, a black and white engraving of a fashionable gown was included at the front of this volume, in response to the interest in fashions evinced by their readers. Pictures of this sort were included in all subsequent editions, depicting styles of full dress, undress, head coverings, bonnets, and accessories. In 1770 the monopoly was succe

Second Hand Fashion, Culture and Identity in Hong Kong

Hazel Clark

Source: Old Clothes, New Looks. Second Hand Fashion 2005

Book chapter

Settled by the British in 1841 and established as a colony with a 99-year lease in 1898, Hong Kong was ‘handed back’ to mainland China in 1997, with the ground work for that change having been laid in the early 1990s, politically, socially, economically, and culturally. What was being returned to China was not the ‘barren rock’ first ceded to the British, but an affluent and fashionable city and an international center of business, banking and trade.

The Florentine ‘Rigattieri’: Second Hand Clothing Dealers and the Circulation of Goods in the Renaissance

Carole Collier Frick

Source: Old Clothes, New Looks. Second Hand Fashion 2005

Book chapter

In the economy of Renaissance Florence, the textile and garment industry dominated the urban marketplace for consumer goods. In addition to the 909 household heads Franceschi found who listed some aspect of the woolen cloth business as their occupation at the turn of the fifteenth century, Herlihy and Klapisch-Zuber counted 866 clothiers in 1427 that identified themselves by some aspect of the clothing trade within the city.For the wool-workers see (Franceschi, 1993: tab. 20: 143). For other clot

Used Clothing

Mélissa Gauthier

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Latin America and the Caribbean 2005

Encyclopedia entry

Although not new, the global circulation of secondhand clothing from the West to the Third World has expanded rapidly over the past two decades. The United States is the world’s largest exporter of used clothing, American exports having grown significantly since the late twentieth century. Different countries subject imported American secondhand clothing to various trade policies, from liberalization to protectionist. A recent review by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (

Crafting Appearances: The Second Hand Clothing Trade and Dress Practices in Zambia

Karen Tranberg Hansen

Source: Old Clothes, New Looks. Second Hand Fashion 2005

Book chapter

In much of the West today, shopping for second hand clothes has become a pastime rather than a need. Fashion conscious shoppers, both young and old, female and male, turn to the used clothing racks for vintage or retro looks. Charity shops offer a retail space for experimentation with the unknown, the imagined (Gregson, Brooks & Crewe, 2000). Across North America and Europe, second hand clothing makes up niche or fringe markets for consumers who are on the lookout for very specific garments. Ther

Explore
Sixties Dress Only! The Consumption of the Past in a Retro Scene

Heike Jenß

Source: Old Clothes, New Looks. Second Hand Fashion 2005

Book chapter

It is reasonably easy and affordable to recreate a nice 60s look 30 years later. A well stocked wardrobe should have a mix of current items and retro items that can be worn together. For a proper 60s look, vintage dresses are the best …

Shifting Currency: The Culture and Economy of the Second Hand Trade in England, c. 1600–1850

Beverly Lemire

Source: Old Clothes, New Looks. Second Hand Fashion 2005

Book chapter

In the long period of human history in the West before the full force of industrialization changed the world, the scarcity of goods ensured their careful husbanding. Use and reuse defined the everyday for all but a tiny minority of the population. However, by at least the late sixteenth century, dramatic and progressive changes in trade and manufacturing were stimulating regional economies, changing social relations, as scarcity slowly and very gradually began to give way before a rising abundanc

‘Ukay-Ukay’ Chic: Tales of Second Hand Clothing Fashion and Trade in the Philippine Cordillera

B. Lynne Milgram

Source: Old Clothes, New Looks. Second Hand Fashion 2005

Book chapter

At first glance, newspaper stories like these provide us with nothing more than facts about popular shopping trends. Yet the story that knowledgeable readers can glimpse is far more complex. Such narratives relate how traders and consumers in the Philippines claim ownership over the West’s discarded clothing to refashion modernity on their own terms. Since the early 1990s, the growing export of used clothing from North America and northwestern Europe to ‘developing’ countries may initially appear

Second Hand Silk Kimono Migrating Across Borders

Terry Satsuki Milhaupt

Source: Old Clothes, New Looks. Second Hand Fashion 2005

Book chapter

Garments made of silk – a highly valued and much traded commodity in sixteenth-century Japan – circulated as forms of currency, payment and reward (Takeda, 2002: 71–72). Valued as precious commodities, silk garments were reused rather than discarded. Undamaged portions of garments were creatively recombined to produce ‘new’ clothes. In some cases, body and sleeve panels from two distinct garments might be combined to form a more visually arresting composition, or to conform to current styles. For

Creative Entrepreneurs: The Recycling of Second Hand Indian Clothing

Lucy Norris

Source: Old Clothes, New Looks. Second Hand Fashion 2005

Book chapter

In recent years, Western markets have been overflowing with furnishings and clothing made from Indian sari fabrics. Independent traders working in street markets, festivals and small boutiques sell a variety of cushions, bedspreads and wall hangings, alongside various items of clothing in Western styles, such as halter-neck tops, skirts and trousers. By mid 1999, British shops selling furniture and furnishings were festooned with Indian fabrics and designs made up into Western consumer goods. Hig

Parcels from America: American Clothes in Ireland c.1930–1980

Hilary O’Kelly

Source: Old Clothes, New Looks. Second Hand Fashion 2005

Book chapter

From Ireland the journey to America took weeks and even months by ship so that the people at home could only imagine what world their relations had gone to. The basis of their imagining came from letters home and through news gleaned from returned ‘Yanks’. But more abstract imaginings were inspired in other ways, through the dollars and the parcels that crossed the Atlantic Ocean.

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