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Laver, James

Michael Carter

Source: The Berg Companion to Fashion 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Laver was fascinated by the effects that the passing of time has upon people and their works. He was greatly influenced in his theory of time by a notion of zeitgeist, or “time spirit,” a concept taken from nineteenth-century German philosophy. Zeitgeist proposes the existence of a collective psychological, or spiritual, entity that imparts a distinctive pattern of aims and emphases to a culture, nation, or historical epoch. Drawing on this idea of cultural unity, Laver concluded that every aspec

Moore, Doris Langley

Michele Majer

Source: The Berg Companion to Fashion 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Iceland

Æsa Sigurjónsdóttir

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Iceland was part of the Danish kingdom from the fourteenth century until its independence in 1944. Despite geographical isolation, Icelanders have always kept up with European fashions. However, artist and antiquarian Sigurður Guðmundsson (1833–1874) encouraged women not to follow European styles, but to adopt a simple everyday dress. His article on the subject in 1857 had an enduring influence on women’s dress in Iceland, although his proposal in 1871 for a men’s national outfit failed. Men’s ev

The Study of Dress and Fashion in West Europe

Lise Skov

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The dress and fashion of West Europe have been studied by many scholars. During most of the twentieth century, the analytical framework and specific subject matter were determined by disciplinary divisions. Art historians studied the development of clothing in detail; sociologists analyzed how class antagonisms were acted out in fashion; psychologists studied the fundamental motives expressed in dress; ethnologists documented different folk dress (or regional dress) traditions; semioticians read

Cunnington, C. Willett and Phillis

Lou Taylor

Source: The Berg Companion to Fashion 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Millennium Dress History: Artifacts as Harbingers of Change

Annette Lynch and Mitchell D. Strauss

Source: Changing Fashion. A Critical Introduction to Trend Analysis and Meaning 2007

Book chapter

Material culture studies emerged in the 1970s and 1980s as art historians, archeologists, and folklorists sought methodologies to embed artifact analysis into a cultural analysis approach. First developed as a means of interpreting artifacts commonly studied by art historians and archaeologists, such as pottery, architectural elements, and furniture, the methodology was quickly adapted to the study of textiles and dress in part due to its primary reliance on systematic analysis of artifacts. Jule

James Laver, the Reluctant Expert

Michael Carter

Source: Fashion Classics from Carlyle to Barthes 2003

Book chapter

Clothes are inevitable.

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