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Azerbaijan—Urban Dress, the 1920s to the Twenty-First Century

Djurdja Bartlett

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The Azeri (Azerbaijani ethnicity) aristocracy and the nascent bourgeoisie and intelligentsia gradually introduced elements of Western styles into their dress beginning in the mid-nineteenth century, when the region was still part of the Russian tsarist empire. Europeanized dress was one of the elements within a wider discourse that challenged the old way of life and its long-held traditions and proposed modernization in all the fields of society. A new role for women was on the agenda of secular

Royal and Aristocratic Dress

Beatrix Bastl

Source: The Berg Companion to Fashion 2010

Encyclopedia entry

After her flight from Lochleven to Carlisle, Mary [Stuart of Scotland] was in dire need of clothes and asked [Queen] Elizabeth to send her some dresses. Elizabeth harshly denied her request, because Mary had not asked Elizabeth for just any kind of clothes, but for used dresses from Elizabeth’s own wardrobe. As a reply, Elizabeth sent some lengths of black velvet, black satin and black taffeta. With this gift Elizabeth not only denied Mary royal dignity but also sent a sharp reprimand for Mary’s

Trendsetters

Laird Borrelli

Source: The Berg Companion to Fashion 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Rites of Passage and Ritual Traditions of the Shan

Susan Conway

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. South Asia and Southeast Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Shan State is bordered by China, Tibet, Laos, and Thailand. The Shan belong to the Tai ethnic groups. Their rulers came from prominent local families, but they usually had to present tribute payments to more powerful monarchs. The major Shan religion is Theravada Buddhism, which assimilated ancient spirit religions. The Shan make textiles and cultivate cotton. They have for centuries imported Chinese and Burmese raw silk and other luxury fabrics. Exotic court dress identified rulers with the gods

Azerbaijan

Lala Eldarova

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Azerbaijan lies on the western shore of the Caspian Sea, at the southeastern extremity of the mountainous Caucasus region. It has borders with Russia, Georgia, Armenia, Iran, and Turkey. The development of Azerbaijani national dress reached its zenith in the nineteenth century, with the emergence of its own unique style, with many features being common to all parts of the country. The principles, rules, and customs governing its design, cut, and the way it should be worn reflected the unity of th

Hungary: Ethnic Dress

Ágnes Fülemile

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Throughout most of its history Hungary had a predominantly agrarian economy. The institutions of the feudal system had been only gradually eliminated during the nineteenth century. The dress of common people was strongly independent of general fashion influences. In Hungary there was a deep social gap between classes, and the dress of the agrarian population became modernized later than that of city dwellers. The most flourishing period of regional peasant dress was the nineteenth and early twent

Between East and West—Elite Fashions and Political Change in the Romanian Principalities, 1774–1850

Angela Jianu

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Foreign observers often remarked on the love of luxury among Greek and Romanian nobles at the Phanariot courts of Bucharest and Iasi. Details excepted, female and male figures looked very similar in long, ample vestments. When the Swedish painter Alexander Roslin painted Catherine the Great’s maid of honor, Moldavian Princess Zoe Ghika, in 1777, the sitter may have represented more than a pretty girl in exotic costume. The daughter of a former Phanariot prince of Moldavia, she had joined her fami

Trickle-Down

Susan B. Kaiser

Source: The Berg Companion to Fashion 2010

Encyclopedia entry

French Travelers Writing on Russian Dress

Raisa Marduhovna Kirsanova

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Among many French travelers who described Russia’s native attire were artists, politicians, and historians. The most popular memoirs were those of Louis-Philippe de Ségur (1753–1830), French ambassador to Russia under Catherine the Great. The count stated that in Russia, “red” (krasniy) is equivalent to “beautiful” (krasiviy), because, observing the predominance of red in peasant festive dress, he perceived it as the color of national holidays. Court painter Vigée LeBrun (1755–1842), who emigrate

Georgia

Irina Koshoridze

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The history of Georgian ethnic dress is closely related to the history of textiles in this region. Simultaneously, the nature of the country, ethnic differences between the regions, the political orientations of the different regions, contemporary fashions, and foreign influences also played important roles in the formation of this dress.

Royal Dress in India and Pakistan

Ritu Kumar

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. South Asia and Southeast Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

India’s oldest literary works, the Vedas (1500–500 b.c.e.) contain no exact descriptions of royal clothing; however, accounts of flowing, gold-embroidered clothes, obviously regal dress, appear in the earliest Veda. The Aryans instituted kingship and social hierarchy. Early royalty clearly wore waist wraps, sashes, upper garments, and turbans. In northern Indian kingdoms, Central Asian influence dominated; local royalty is depicted in flowing garments and elaborate jewelry. The southern Indian Sa

Diana, Princess of Wales

Catherine McDermott

Source: The Berg Companion to Fashion 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Social Class and Clothing

Katalin Medvedev

Source: The Berg Companion to Fashion 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Social class is a system of multilayered hierarchy among people. Historically, social stratification emerged as the consequence of surplus production. This surplus created the basis for economic inequality, and in turn prompted a ceaseless striving for upward mobility among people in the lower strata of society.

Jewelry

Gabriele Mentges

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Jewelry, an anglicized version of the old French word jouel, means, in its broadest sense, body adornment. This definition is also valid for clothing, and both make the human body culturally visible. Like dress, jewelry belongs to particular cultural bodily techniques whose interpretation depends on culture, time, and space. However, clothing and jewelry differ profoundly in regard to their practices and meaning. The differences in regard to dress and jewelry concern, first, material and shape; s

Fashion in Belgrade, 1918 to 1941

Bojana Popović

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus 2010

Encyclopedia entry

In the wake of World War I, Serbia became part of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes (from 1929, the Kingdom of Yugoslavia), and its capital city, Belgrade, was proclaimed the capital of this new state, which was ruled by the Serbian Karadjordjevic dynasty. Despite economic and political tensions, the kingdom kept pace with the process of modernization that was in progress in the rest of postwar Europe, and Belgrade’s appearance and the routines of its inhabitants were changing very quick

Dress of the Ranas of Nepal

Gautam S.J.B. Rana

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. South Asia and Southeast Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Rana rule in Nepal began in 1846, when, against a background of internecine strife within the ruling elite, Jung Bahadur (1816–1877) seized power. By 1850 Jung Bahadur had removed all his rivals, installed a new king on the throne, and appointed his brothers and allies to the key positions of government. He himself became prime minister. The king later bestowed on him the hereditary title of maharaja, and Jung Bahadur also assumed the name Rana, which had connotations of martial glory. Since his

Dress and Art: Western

Sandra L. Rosenbaum

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Global Perspectives 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Images of people wearing clothing create an obvious connection between dress and art. Because relatively few examples of historic garments survive, these images document the history of dress. Historically, those sitting for portraits chose their dress to project a specific image; the artist was responsible for conveying messages encoded in dress, meticulously reproducing them. Ann Rosalind Jones and Peter Stallybrass have commented that Renaissance clothes were perceived as material forms of pers

Early Noble Dress in Russia

Oksana Sekatcheva

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Early Russian dress in the period from the fourteenth to the seventeenth century is widely regarded as a dress of national identity and is generally termed “historic Russian costume.” Its development was completed by the middle of the sixteenth century, and it existed almost unchanged until the end of the seventeenth century, when it was officially ousted in favor of European dress during Peter the Great’s reforms.

Music and Dress

Else Skjold

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Music and dress have played a significant role in the civilization process in West Europe. Both being aesthetic fields meant to be performed and put into play by human gesture, they have proved to be efficient tools for cultivating the movements, postures, and gestures of the body. The material, cut, and shape of dress have manipulated the body to move in certain ways, as have rhythms and expressions in music. Significant for West Europe has been a duality between spirit and body, causing a divis

Poland: Urban Dress up to 1900

Anna Straszewska

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus 2010

Encyclopedia entry

In the early sixteenth century, Renaissance styles became popular in Poland, with Eastern influences emerging from the union between the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. Hungarian connections were likewise significant, Hungary being influenced by the Orient through the Ottoman Empire. During the sixteenth century, Polish-Lithuanian noblemen started adopting Oriental attire called “Sarmatian dress,” believing themselves descendants of the ancient Sarmatians who, according to Pli

Lord Chesterfield's Letters to His Son: The Earl of Chesterfield

Source: Classic and Modern Writings on Fashion 2nd Edition 2009

Book chapter

London, November the 8th, O. S. 1750.

Gesture, Ritual, and Social Order in Sixteenth- to Eighteenth-Century Poland

Maria Bogucka

Source: Classic and Modern Writings on Fashion 2nd Edition 2009

Book chapter

Both manners and bodily comportment of a nobleman should be grave and full of dignity. Mikolaj Rej, a famous writer of noble origin, wrote in the middle of the seventeenth century:

Society and Festivals

Jacob Burckhardt

Source: Classic and Modern Writings on Fashion 2nd Edition 2009

Book chapter

Looks and Appearance

Baldesar Castiglione

Source: Classic and Modern Writings on Fashion 2nd Edition 2009

Book chapter

‘I remember your saying earlier that this courtier of ours should be naturally endowed with beauty of countenance and person and with an attractive grace. Well, I feel sure that I possess both grace and beauty of countenance, and that's why so many women, as you know, are madly in love with me. But when it comes to the beauty of my person, I am rather doubtful, and especially as regards these legs of mine which do not seem to me to be as good as I would wish; still, as to my chest and so on, I am

Prescribing Fashion: Dress, Politics and Gender in Sixteenth-Century Italian Conduct Literature

Elizabeth Currie

Source: Classic and Modern Writings on Fashion 2nd Edition 2009

Book chapter

In the evening, when it is customary for Florentines to go out often, they wear caps on their heads, and cloaks in the Spanish style, that is with a hood at the back. Men who wear these during the day, unless they are soldiers, are considered disreputable and shabby. In the house they wear a large beret in the winter, and either a frock-coat or a catelano; in the summer a small beret, a house-coat of cloth or gabardine from Lille. Whoever rides horses wears a cloak or some type of loose over-coat

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