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Belgium

Karlijn Bronselaer

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Belgium played a vital role in the industrialization of the European textile industry. Belgian society changed very quickly due to industrialization during the first half of the nineteenth century. From about the 1820s on the fashionable silhouette in West Europe was the hourglass. Although the average Belgian had neither time nor money for fashion, improved production methods and sewing machines made corsets more affordable. Later, the Art Nouveau or Jugendstil movement (ca. 1890–1920), with its

France

Kimberly Chrisman-Campbell

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The French Revolution abolished the rigid dress etiquette and bureaucracy of the ancien régime fashion industry. Napoleon’s campaigns inspired fashions with soldierly details and created a vogue for exotic accessories. His imperial court ensured the survival of French luxury goods industries, while promoting a more modern silhouette. Napoleon encouraged pre-Revolutionary tastes for classical Greek and Roman styles, to glorify his own reign. The restoration of the Bourbon monarchy and the Romantic

Latvia: Urban Dress

Tatjana Cvetkova and Edīte Parute

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Latvia is located at the crossroads of international trade routes and has suffered many foreign invasions. Urban fashion shows evidence of various nations that have ruled Latvia, and links with other nations have engendered a unique mix of elements, along with sensitivity to European novelties. From early times, simple, functional dress was important. This has always been embellished by ornaments and accessories. Although national details have sometimes diluted modern tendencies, urban culture ha

Fashion, Dress, and Interior Spaces

Peter McNeil

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Global Perspectives 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Clothes are animated by bodies moving in space, and attitudes toward work and leisure that have changed dramatically across culture and time. In early modern Europe until the eighteenth century, sumptuary laws extended well beyond dress to even the type of finish and materials used in interior design. Other societies, including China and Thailand, continuously attempted to control these appearances. In England in the post-Restoration decades, very wealthy women exhibited new independence in the d

Flowers in the Art of Dress across the World

Peter McNeil

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Global Perspectives 2010

Encyclopedia entry

When an object or motif is universal, there is a tendency to trivialize it. This is undoubtedly the case with the theme of flowers in its relationship to fashion and textiles. The floral motif is cross-cultural and ubiquitous but is connected in highly specific ways to different systems of social organization, personal adornment, and religious practice. The ways in which flowers and their representations are used highlight attitudes toward covering the body and adorning the head, as well as compl

Art Nouveau and Art Deco

Lou Taylor

Source: The Berg Companion to Fashion 2010

Encyclopedia entry

This appropriation of art nouveau styling coincided with the moment in the history of couture when a united business structure was firmly established by the Chambre Syndicale de la Couture Parisienne. Unrivaled elsewhere in the Western world, Paris couturiers dressed the women of international royal courts and high society including in Japan and tsarist Russia, the wives of the wealthiest international plutocrats, and the great actresses of the Paris stage. Commercial clients already included the

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