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Masquerade and Masked Balls

Ann Ilan Alter

Source: The Berg Companion to Fashion 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Early History of Dress and Fashion in the Nordic Countries

Eva B. Andersson, Margarita Gleba, Ulla Mannering and Marianne Vedeler

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The Nordic countries comprise Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Aaland, Finland, Iceland, the Faroes, and Greenland. The northernmost part of Germany and the Norse community on Greenland are also considered here to be within this cultural area. Denmark has abundant Bronze and Early Iron Age finds, while Sweden, Norway, Finland, and Greenland have yielded more medieval material. From about 4200 b.c.e., textiles appear at Danish sites; Early Bronze Age graves have yielded complete garments, including women’

A Brief History of the Purse up to 1930

Kathleen Campbell

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Global Perspectives 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Purses, or handbags, have been a key component of a woman’s wardrobe for much of the 20th century and into the 21st. In recent years, handbags have evolved from chic accessories for carrying personal items to status symbols that may cost thousands of dollars. However, the first known purses developed centuries ago with different objectives in mind. The transformation of the form and function of the purse from ancient times through the 1920s reflects broad currents in social history, including the

Early History of Dress and Fashion in Italy and the Iberian Peninsula

Carmen Alfaro Giner and Maria Giuseppina Muzzarelli

Translated by Ana Alacovska

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Rock engravings in Valcamonica, Italy, indicate the use of looms and thus weaving in the second millennium b.c.e. Tunics were worn by both men and women during pre-Roman times in the Iberian Peninsula.Italian regions colonized by Greece in the eighth century b.c.e. were influenced by Hellenic fashion. The Roman royal period lasted from 753 to 509 b.c.e., followed by the republic and the empire. Clothing during the first two periods was largely austere, although wealth and refinement characterized

Armor

Walter Karcheski

Source: The Berg Companion to Fashion 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Humans’ earliest supplemental protection was probably skins and hides. However, the earliest purpose-built defense, found in Europe and western Asia, was a type of belly plate made originally of organic material and later in bronze or metal-reinforced fabric. The Sumerians employed metal helmets and a metal-reinforced cloak. In about 2000 B.C.E. textile coverings appeared with applied, overlapping metal scales, which continued in occasional use until the eighteenth century.

Georgia

Irina Koshoridze

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The history of Georgian ethnic dress is closely related to the history of textiles in this region. Simultaneously, the nature of the country, ethnic differences between the regions, the political orientations of the different regions, contemporary fashions, and foreign influences also played important roles in the formation of this dress.

Trade, Textiles, and Dress in Central and Southwest Asia

Abby Lillethun

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Central and Southwest Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Textiles and dress provide invaluable opportunities for insight into the encounters of lifestyles with infrastructures of trade and exchange. Textiles and dress in Central and Southwest Asia cover a long historical arc, from the earliest known archaeological textile finds to the twenty-first century.

Early History of Dress and Fashion in Continental West Europe

Mechthild Müller

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The discovery of the Iceman “Oetzi,” who lived between 3500 and 3000 b.c.e., provides valuable information on early dress. His many garments included a patchwork-style goat-fur mantle. Much later, Roman dress included tunics and togas for Roman citizens or friendly allied nations. In 816/817 Charlemagne’s son, Louis the Pious, made monks and members of the clergy accept dress codes. Lay men and women were required to dress differently, and women had to cover their heads in public. Fashion during

Latvia: Ancient and Ethnic Dress

Ieva Pigozne-Brinkmane

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Between the seventh and thirteenth centuries, the territory known in the early twenty-first century as Latvia was inhabited by its indigenous people, the Baltic and Finno-Ugric tribes. Evidence of dress can be found from archaeological excavations. Men and women wore clothing made at home from locally grown flax and fleece; accessories were made from leather and furs of domestic and wild animals. The primary garment was a long-sleeved collarless linen tunic, long for women, shorter for men. Men w

Estonia: Urban Dress

Reet Piiri

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus 2010

Encyclopedia entry

In the thirteenth century, Estonia was divided among German nobility, but no German peasants moved there, so a clear ethnic divide developed along class lines. Clothing was produced in guilds, and also at home, especially (but not only) in poorer households. The fifteenth century marked the advent of the décolleté, hoop skirt, flared sleeves, and gold and silver embroidery. Although the Reformation reached Estonia in 1523, the courtly clothing fashions of Catholic Spain exerted an influence. The

Materials

Giorgio Riello

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Before 1800, fashionable individuals were defined as much by the textiles they chose as the styles they wore. There are characteristics shared by all textiles. First, they were used by people across society to construct notions of worth and appropriateness. Second, their importance in medieval, early modern, and modern European societies was linked to their value. Before industrialization reduced production costs, textiles remained generally luxuries. A third shared characteristic was their ubiqu

Introduction to the History of Dress in the Arabian Desert and Peninsula

Tineke Rooijakkers

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Central and Southwest Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The Arabian Peninsula is a subcontinent shaped by its climate, containing a central plateau (the Nejd), occasionally marshy coastal plains along the Persian Gulf, and mountain ranges along the Red Sea coast. It is mostly known for its great deserts, the Nafud, the Dhana, and the Rub’ al-Khal. There is very little surface water, and less than one percent of the region is suitable for agriculture. These factors have shaped the way of life of the Arabs. There are some towns and cities located near s

Sources of Information about Dress in Southwest Asia

Tineke Rooijakkers

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Central and Southwest Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Information on dress in Southwest Asia (also referred to as the Middle East or the Near East) is derived from both primary evidence, such as actual textiles and garments or tools for textile production, and secondary evidence, which includes textual and pictographic sources. Textual sources incorporate not only written references to dress in prose or poetry but also laws, trade accounts, inventories, wedding contracts, travelogues, and so on. Depictions of dress can be found in paintings, frescoe

Introduction to the History of Dress on the Iranian Plateau

Willem Vogelsang

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Central and Southwest Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The Iranian Plateau stretches from the banks of the Tigris River in the west to the valley of the Indus River in the east, and from the arid expanse of West Turkistan in the north to the Indian Ocean in the south. It is a harsh land, with limited water supplies, hot summers, and sometimes bitterly cold winters. Its geographic location, however, has made it into a natural transition zone between the plains of Southwest Asia, including ancient Mesopotamia, and the humid valleys and arid deserts of

Face Veils

Gillian Vogelsang-Eastwood

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Central and Southwest Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

A face veil is a separate garment that is used to cover all or part of the face, usually that of a woman. Ethnic and cultural origins often play a prominent role in whether a woman wears a face veil, and what type. Some groups have insisted on women being veiled because their presence is a sexual distraction to men. Veiling is also used to indicate the physical status of a female, that is, to show if she is in the fertile phase of her life. In patriarchal societies, veiling is sometimes linked to

Al-Washsha, a Medieval Fashion Guru

Gillian Vogelsang-Eastwood

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Central and Southwest Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The early medieval period in Southwest Asia was a time of change, with an increase in wealth and trade, especially via Central Asia with China, along the so-called Silk Road. In addition there was political and social stability following the establishment of the Abbasid dynasty in 749 c.e. The Abbasid caliphate flourished for two centuries before going into decline and was one of the great Muslim caliphates of the Arab Empire, known for its arts, literature, and architectural achievements, and al

The Coming of Islam and Its Influence on Dress

Gillian Vogelsang-Eastwood

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Central and Southwest Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The advent of Islam in the seventh century c.e. had a profound effect not only on the religious and philosophical aspects of life but also on the social and economic structures of Central and Southwest Asia. The new religion brought with it concepts about what was and was not acceptable in all aspects of life, including dress, with reverberations into the twenty-first century.

Saudi Arabian Dress

Gillian Vogelsang-Eastwood

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Central and Southwest Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Saudi Arabia is a vast country dominated by deserts, oases, and mountain ranges. Until recently these natural features had separated the various communities that live throughout the peninsula. Saudi Arabia is, therefore, often divided into four geographical and cultural areas: the Northern Province (the Nafud), Eastern Province (the Hasa), Western Province (the Hijaz and `Asir) and the Central Province (the Nejd). For hundreds of years the Northern Province has looked northward toward Syria, Iraq

Egypt: Historical Dress

Gillian Vogelsang-Eastwood and Tineke Rooijakkers

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Africa 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The history of dress in Egypt is long and complicated and highly influenced by the country’s geographical location at the crossroads of Asia, Africa, and Europe. For centuries, various groups have fought for control of Egypt because of its strategic economic and political position. Each group has left its mark on Egyptian culture, including the dress worn by its inhabitants. The study of dress in Egypt is facilitated by the hot, dry climate that has preserved organic artifacts such as textiles, g

Greece

Linda Welters

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Greece is a comparatively small country, yet it commands an important position in the history of dress. Situated at the crossroads of Asia and Europe, with Egypt on the opposite shore across the Mediterranean Sea, Greece has experienced many political and cultural upheavals that have influenced the manner in which its inhabitants dressed. Likewise, the attire of the ancient Greeks has affected the clothing choices of other cultures, past and present.

Bangladesh

Niaz Zaman

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. South Asia and Southeast Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Bordered to the south by the Bay of Bengal, to the west, north, and east by India, and to the southeast by Myanmar, Bangladesh became an independent country in 1971. The climate is tropical, with heavy seasonal rainfall for about four months of the year, high temperatures, and high humidity. Though temperatures fall in winter, necessitating the use of shawls and wraps, the prevailing warmth and humidity require clothes to be light and few. The indigenous dress of the lower Gangetic Delta was unst

The Medieval Aesthetic Sensibility

Umberto Eco

Source: Classic and Modern Writings on Fashion 2nd Edition 2009

Book chapter

When the Scholastics spoke about beauty they meant by this an attribute of God. The metaphysics of beauty (in Plotinus, for instance) and the theory of art were in no way related. ‘Contemporary’ man places an exaggerated value on art because he has lost the feeling for intelligible beauty which the neo-Platonists and the Medievals possessed… . Here we are dealing with a type of beauty of which Aesthetics knows nothing.E. R.Curtius, European Literature and the Latin Middle Ages, translated by Will

Art and Life

Johan Huizinga

Source: Classic and Modern Writings on Fashion 2nd Edition 2009

Book chapter

Il te fauldra de vert vestir,

Between Clothing and Nudity

Mario Perniola

Source: Classic and Modern Writings on Fashion 2nd Edition 2009

Book chapter

In the figurative arts, eroticism appears as a relationship between clothing and nudity. Therefore, it is conditional on the possibility of movement – transit – from one state to the other. If either of these poles takes on a primary or essential significance to the exclusion of the other, then the possibility for this transit is sacrificed, and with it the conditions for eroticism. In such cases, either clothing or nudity becomes an absolute value.

Clothing Provision and the Great Wardrobe in the Mid-Thirteenth Century

Kay Staniland

Source: Classic and Modern Writings on Fashion 2nd Edition 2009

Book chapter

The King sends to the fair of St. Ives William the Tailor and John le Fleming to purchase for the King's use

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