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Surviving the Depression: 1930s

Joy Spanabel Emery

Source: A History of the Paper Pattern Industry. The Home Dressmaking Fashion Revolution 2014

Book chapter

Pattern producers repudiate rumors that they enjoyed a boom during the Depression. Like most other businesses, theirs suffers when people are hard up; it recovers when people start spending again. Patterns hit bottom in 1932. Improvement began in the Fall of 1933, but not soon enough to make an increase for the year. Estimates place 1934 ahead of 1933 by about 10%.

1868–1944: The Japoniste Revolution, the Deorientalizing of the Orient and the Birth of Couture

Adam Geczy

Source: Fashion and Orientalism. Dress, Textiles and Culture from the 17th to the 21st Century 2013

Book chapter

Civilization! Read: ‘the era that has lost almost all its creative power…in jewellery as in furniture’; and in one or the other we are compelled to exhume or import. Import what? Indian bracelets of glass filament and Chinese earrings of cut paper? No. But more often the naïve taste that underlies their making.

Buying into Fashion: The Social Background

Geraldine Howell

Source: Wartime Fashion. From Haute Couture to Homemade, 1939–1945 2012

Book chapter

Being Chic and Being British

Geraldine Howell

Source: Wartime Fashion. From Haute Couture to Homemade, 1939–1945 2012

Book chapter

The Healthy Body and the Politics of Fitness

Geraldine Howell

Source: Wartime Fashion. From Haute Couture to Homemade, 1939–1945 2012

Book chapter

Evacuation

Geraldine Howell

Source: Wartime Fashion. From Haute Couture to Homemade, 1939–1945 2012

Book chapter

Fashions for a Phoney War

Geraldine Howell

Source: Wartime Fashion. From Haute Couture to Homemade, 1939–1945 2012

Book chapter

Calls for Rationed Fashion

Geraldine Howell

Source: Wartime Fashion. From Haute Couture to Homemade, 1939–1945 2012

Book chapter

Conclusion

Geraldine Howell

Source: Wartime Fashion. From Haute Couture to Homemade, 1939–1945 2012

Book chapter

Paul Poiret: Classic and New in the Struggle for Designer Mastery

Ilya Parkins

Source: Poiret, Dior and Schiaparelli. Fashion, Femininity and Modernity 2012

Book chapter

In a meditation on the accumulation of symbolic capital in the fields of cultural production, Bourdieu, who views fashion as one among many such fields, explains that the production of time is central to the work of distinguishing the artists: ‘To “make one’s name” (faire date) means making one’s mark, achieving recognition (in both senses) of one’s difference from other producers; at the same time, it means creating a new position beyond the positions presently occupied, ahead of them, in the av

Elsa Schiaparelli: Glamour, Privacy and Timelessness

Ilya Parkins

Source: Poiret, Dior and Schiaparelli. Fashion, Femininity and Modernity 2012

Book chapter

The opening lines of Schiaparelli’s 1954 autobiography, Shocking Life, are curious. Referring to herself in the third person, as she does intermittently throughout the text, Schiaparelli writes, ‘I merely know Schiap by hearsay. I have only seen her in a mirror.’ElsaSchiaparelli, Shocking Life (1954; reprint, V&A Publications, 2007), p. vii. Here, with surprising bluntness, she sets herself up as someone who is ‘split’, having a rich inner life characterized by multiple visions of self.For a tho

Vionnet, Madeleine*

Rebecca Arnold

Source: The Berg Companion to Fashion 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Around 1900 Vionnet moved to Callot Soeurs’s celebrated couture house in Paris. There she began to understand the significance of garment design that sprang from draping fabric directly onto a live model, rather than sketching a design on paper and then translating it into fabric. This approach necessarily focused attention on the body and its relationship to the way fabric was draped and sculpted around its contours. Vionnet exploited this technique to the full. For Vionnet, draping—in her case

Azerbaijan—Urban Dress, the 1920s to the Twenty-First Century

Djurdja Bartlett

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The Azeri (Azerbaijani ethnicity) aristocracy and the nascent bourgeoisie and intelligentsia gradually introduced elements of Western styles into their dress beginning in the mid-nineteenth century, when the region was still part of the Russian tsarist empire. Europeanized dress was one of the elements within a wider discourse that challenged the old way of life and its long-held traditions and proposed modernization in all the fields of society. A new role for women was on the agenda of secular

Windsor, Duke and Duchess of

Andrew Bolton

Source: The Berg Companion to Fashion 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The Duke of Windsor was born Prince Edward of York on 23 June 1894. With the death of his grandfather, King Edward VII in 1910, his father was crowned King George V. Upon his father’s accession, Prince Edward of York became Duke Edward of Cornwall, and on his sixteenth birthday, Prince Edward of Wales.

Dress Reforms of the Early Twentieth Century in Turkey, Iran, and Afghanistan

Derek Bryce

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Central and Southwest Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

During the 1920s and 1930s, three states—Turkey, Iran, and Afghanistan—embarked on a series of wide-ranging programmatic reforms designed to transform their respective societies fundamentally. Often called “modernization from above” because of their association with authoritarian elites, these reforms attempted to impose changes in state, economic, and sociocultural spheres that favored broadly Western models and to replace or restrict the practice of corresponding traditional, indigenous, or Isl

Fortuny, Mariano

Gillion Carrara

Source: The Berg Companion to Fashion 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Fortuny’s garments and textiles fuse history, anthropology, and art. By blending various dyes he achieved luminous, unique colors. Resurrecting the ancient craft of pleating fabric, artistically symbolizing a reflection of the sun’s rays, Fortuny developed his own interpretation of this craft and registered his heated pleating device in 1909. Between 1901 and 1933 he registered twenty-two patents, all of which related to garments and printing methods. Prolific in artistic pursuits, he printed etc

Gucci

Gillion Carrara

Source: The Berg Companion to Fashion 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Flügel, J. C.

Michael Carter

Source: The Berg Companion to Fashion 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Flügel makes little use of Freud’s ideas of clothing as either fetish objects or as sexual symbols in dreams. Central to his analysis of clothing is the sociopolitical interpretation he gives to Freud’s model of the human psyche. Freud argues for a three-part division of the mind into id, superego, and ego. The id is the dimension of primitive instinct and the ultimate propelling force of the organism. The superego is an equally primitive inhibitory mechanism that operates as a crude controller o

Laver, James

Michael Carter

Source: The Berg Companion to Fashion 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Laver was fascinated by the effects that the passing of time has upon people and their works. He was greatly influenced in his theory of time by a notion of zeitgeist, or “time spirit,” a concept taken from nineteenth-century German philosophy. Zeitgeist proposes the existence of a collective psychological, or spiritual, entity that imparts a distinctive pattern of aims and emphases to a culture, nation, or historical epoch. Drawing on this idea of cultural unity, Laver concluded that every aspec

Delaunay, Sonia

Angel Chang

Source: The Berg Companion to Fashion 2010

Encyclopedia entry

James, Charles

Elizabeth Ann Coleman

Source: The Berg Companion to Fashion 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Fath, Jacques

Oriole Cullen

Source: The Berg Companion to Fashion 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Portugal

Paula C. G. da Costa Soares

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Changes in Portuguese dress have closely followed political developments, with the 1974 revolution marking the biggest turning point. During the dictatorship, dress styles were conservative, fashion was class based, and low incomes forced most families to be economical in their consumption of clothes. The 1974 Carnation Revolution led to a revolution in fashion as well, with the emergence of a plethora of informal dress styles that were associated with equality and democracy. In the 1980s and 199

Patou, Jean

Amy de la Haye

Source: The Berg Companion to Fashion 2010

Encyclopedia entry

In 1914 Patou established a couture house at 7, rue St. Florentin, near the rue de la Paix. Although his first collection was prepared, it was never shown, as he went to serve as a captain in a French Zouave regiment during World War I. Following the cessation of hostilities Patou became a leading international couturier. He commissioned his fellow officer Bernard Boutet de Monvel, who was working for several fashion magazines, to illustrate many of his advertisements. Patou’s salon was decorated

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