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Heading for the shade—the spread of outsider cool (1950s–present)

Vanessa Brown

Source: Cool Shades. The History and Meaning of Sunglasses, 2015, Berg Fashion Library

Book chapter

outsiderSunglasses were tactically used by people who were “outside” the goals and means of dominant society, as part of an articulation of a dissonant style which held an attraction just as great as that of those sunny images of “straight” success and leisure. This chapter will show how the more complex connotations of “outsider cool” became desirable and were appropriated by the “mainstream” in the 1950s and 1960s and beyond. Sunglasses could act as a sign of a “bettered self”—but they also sta

Sunglasses

Vanessa Brown

Source: Fashion Photography Archive, 2015, Fashion Photography Archive

Article

By the late 1960s, sunglasses were a well-established fashion accessory, having accumulated numerous valuable meanings within Western visual culture: speed, technology, military power, celebrity, travel, glamour, and the outsider cool of black American jazzmen, beatniks, rap artists, cinematic gangsters, and femmes fatales. Subsequently, sunglasses became increasingly significant to fashion, providing lucrative licensing opportunities as well as creative potential to nuance clothes with desirable

Dress Theory, Fashion and A Jazz Aesthetic

Alphonso D. McClendon

Source: Fashion and Jazz. Dress, identity and subcultural improvisation, 2015, Berg Fashion Library

Book chapter

influence(s)between jazz/fashionmusiciansuse of clothingfashion designersincorporating meaningclothingas act of meaningFashion and jazz are disciplines that have significantly influenced one another in the first half of the twentieth century. Aesthetics, aestheticsdefineddefined as “the identification of the beautiful” (Weiner 2012: 8), were generated, shared and communicated through a merger of visual, behavioral and acoustic qualities among performers. In Cultural PassionsCultural Passions, Eli

A Stylish History of Jazz: 1900–1960

Alphonso D. McClendon

Source: Fashion and Jazz. Dress, identity and subcultural improvisation, 2015, Berg Fashion Library

Book chapter

jazzorigins ofNew Orleansslave performancesBechet, Sidneyon slave performances/New Orleansartinfluence of AfricanAfrican ritualsAfrican art/dressDecades before the Civil War, a gathering of inspired people seeking self-determination initiated the birth of a musical genre that flourished throughout America. Congo SquareCongo Square in New Orleans, Louisiana is the highly renowned ground where slaves gathered for spiritual communion on free Sunday. By 1800, these assemblies swelled to six hundred i

A Narrative of Jazz Modernity

Alphonso D. McClendon

Source: Fashion and Jazz. Dress, identity and subcultural improvisation, 2015, Berg Fashion Library

Book chapter

postmodern identity, in jazzidentity(ies)postmodern in jazz“Satchmo at the Waldorf”“Lady Day at Emerson’s Bar & Grill”“Jazz Urbane”Holiday, Billie“Lady Day at Emerson’s Bar & Grill”classic jazzIn popular culture, jazz is situated in an environment beyond the 1960s stage of fusion, divergence and division, where it is now elevated, revered and presented as a nostalgic art form that conveys an ingenious past. Music scholars of the twenty-first century have applied numerous definitions to this perio

Assessing Elitism and Branding in Jazz

Alphonso D. McClendon

Source: Fashion and Jazz. Dress, identity and subcultural improvisation, 2015, Berg Fashion Library

Book chapter

societal opposition, to jazzNew Orleansand jazzEarly on, jazz experienced modes of disdain, streaming from religious institutions, black societies and majority tradition. This conflict commenced with the intersection of gospel and secular musicsecular music. The latter was associated with music performed in saloons, nightclubs and theaters. Around the early 1900s, Du Bois, W. E. B.Du Bois explained the magnitude of segregationand the churchthe church in black communities, and the churchchurchand

Gendered Identities, Ideologies and Cultural Difference

Alphonso D. McClendon

Source: Fashion and Jazz. Dress, identity and subcultural improvisation, 2015, Berg Fashion Library

Book chapter

sheet music coversfunctions ofperformersmarketing song titlesmusic production systemmusic industrymass-marketsmarketingby performerscommercialization, of jazzPrior to the 1920s dominance of phonograph records and radio, a dominant American aesthetic was disseminated into households via illustrated sheet music covers. These booklets contained descriptive cover art, music, lyrics, dance instructions and photographs, publicityphotographs of performers that stimulated popular interest in songwriters,

Subversive Representation: Vernacular, Dress and Morality

Alphonso D. McClendon

Source: Fashion and Jazz. Dress, identity and subcultural improvisation, 2015, Berg Fashion Library

Book chapter

radical notions, of jazznewspapersnegative portrayals of jazzmedianegative portrayals of jazzjazzradical notions of“Hiawatha”threatblack men asragtimerejection by black aristocracyragtimeand refined art/classmenblack/as threatfearof the Negrocommunitiesblack/and the churchclassblack aristocracychurchand black communitiesblack communities, and the churchblack aristocracyaristocracy, blackEarly jazz, including ragtime and blues, found fruition at a time of social, political and economic change in A

Narcotics and Jazz: A Fashionable Addiction

Alphonso D. McClendon

Source: Fashion and Jazz. Dress, identity and subcultural improvisation, 2015, Berg Fashion Library

Book chapter

There has been a narrative of narcotics in American popular culture. Narcotics are one of the five classes of drugs regulated by the Controlled Substances Act (CSA)Controlled Substances Act (CSA) in the United States. Classified as a Schedule I substance under the CSA, 21 U.S.C. § 812, heroin has “a high potential for abuse, no currently accepted medical use in treatment in the United States, and a lack of accepted safety for use under medical supervision” (Drug Enforcement Administration 2012a).

Beyond The Gardenia: Billie Holiday

Alphonso D. McClendon

Source: Fashion and Jazz. Dress, identity and subcultural improvisation, 2015, Berg Fashion Library

Book chapter

Holiday, Billieinfluence of Hollywoodstyleof Billie HolidayHoliday, Billiedress/style ofOn April 7, 1915, Eleanora Fagan, who would later become known as Billie Holiday, was born in Philadelphia to Sadie, a single mother. This simple event did not foreshadow the star that would suddenly shine bright and burn out within a few decades. In Baltimore, Fagan’s Holiday, Billieearly yearsearly years included a laboring mother, an absent father, truancy, rape by a neighbor and time at an institution for

Aesthetics of The Jazz Dandy

Alphonso D. McClendon

Source: Fashion and Jazz. Dress, identity and subcultural improvisation, 2015, Berg Fashion Library

Book chapter

Adding to his narrative, Michel Fontanes, a former executive, author and jazz musician, articulated the French impression of African American male instrumentalists that expatriated to the country. “They were considered in France as Gods. All black musicians not the white musicians.” Regarding his trip to Paris in 1949, Miles Davis offered consensus. “It was the freedom of being in France and being treated like a human being, like someone important. Even the band and the music we played sounded be

Philadelphia Nightlife, Nostalgia and Popular Culture

Alphonso D. McClendon

Source: Fashion and Jazz. Dress, identity and subcultural improvisation, 2015, Berg Fashion Library

Book chapter

vaudeville entertainmentsminstrel entertainmentAlthough New Orleans, New York and Chicago flourished with neighborhoods of jazz including Storyville, Harlem and the South Side correspondingly, Philadelphia, jazz cityPhiladelphia is a setting where innovators and establishments shaped a noteworthy history. The documentation of entertainment outlets was evidenced at the end of the first decade. From 1910 to 1919, society, political and religious groups promoted balls, dances and concerts via the Ph

Jazz Style on the Catwalk, 1970s–2000s

Alphonso D. McClendon

Source: Fashion Photography Archive, 2015, Fashion Photography Archive

Article

From 1970 to 2000, the influence of jazz culture on the women’s catwalk is pinpointed by the confluence of masculine and feminine details. Designers, during the three decades, interpreted the tuxedo and double-breasted suit that were standardized uniforms of early jazz musicians. Particularly for African American performers, these formal garments bolstered access to mainstream culture, social and economic equality, celebrity, and musical distinction. These utilities are paramount to its exhibitio

Fashion and Jazz

Alphonso D. McClendon

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Global Perspectives, 2010, Berg Fashion Library

Encyclopedia entry

Fashion and jazz are expressive forms of art and have significantly influenced one another in the first half of the twentieth century. The merger of alluring fashion and impassioned jazz configured mutually beneficial relationships, where aesthetics imparting identity and showmanship were put forth. Creative output, an aspiration of each discipline, was achieved through the exploration of textiles and construction in fashion, and the improvisation of melody and harmony in jazz. With American orig

The Influence of American Jazz on Fashion

Susan L. Hannel

Source: Twentieth-Century American Fashion, 2008, Berg Fashion Library

Book chapter

Editors’ Introduction: The efforts to provide more sensible dress for women finally came to fruition in the 1920s, as seen in Chapter 3. Many factors help explain the change in women’s dress from highly structured complex garments to the short, shapeless dresses that emerged in the 1920s. The change occurred, in part, with a shift from Victorian and Edwardian sensibilities to modernist concepts of functionality. Also, in America more young people were entering college and creating new lifestyles

The Beat Generation: Subcultural Style

Linda Welters

Source: Twentieth-Century American Fashion, 2008, Berg Fashion Library

Book chapter

Editors’ Introduction: During the 1950s, Americans were conservative in their attitudes (Miller and Nowak 1977). They lived with the threat of the Cold War, the ‘Red Scare,’ and the atom bomb. The average family lived in the newly formed suburbs where mothers stayed at home and fathers headed off to work. On Sundays, families went to churches of predominantly Protestant denominations. Many middle-class men worked for ‘the organization’ and adopted corporate values as their own (Whyte 1956). Immig

Leather

Celia Stall-Meadows

Source: Know Your Fashion Accessories, 2004, Fairchild Books Library

Book chapter

An ancient eastern king enjoyed touring his kingdom but was frustrated by the rocky and uneven surface of the landscape. He found walking difficult for bare feet, so ordered his servants to lay animal skins over the path, covering the ground on which he walked. This tedious process was much too time consuming for the impatient king. In a rage, he demanded his prime minister to devise a way to cover all the earth of his kingdom with animal skins—or face certain death.

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