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Vampires and Goths: Fandom, Gender and Cult Dress

Milly Williamson

Source: Dressed to Impress. Looking the Part 2011

Book chapter

To many commentators the vampire is said to symbolize Western fear of the female body. Bram Dijkstra for example, suggests that the vampire demonstrates the way that Western culture simultaneously hates, fears and fetishizes the female body. He argues that even when the vampire is nominally a male figure, it translates into a male-generated fear of ‘woman (sic) as vampire’ (Dijkstra 1996: 7). Dijkstra argues that we should begin the ‘daunting task of exorcising the vampires of misogyny from our i

Dress in Kiribati

Petra M. Autio

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The Republic of Kiribati is a central Pacific state, which consists of thirty-three tiny atolls and reef islands scattered over a vast ocean area corresponding to one-third the size of the United States. It includes three island groups—the Gilbert, Phoenix, and Line Islands—and the island of Banaba. Apart from the Banabans, who have their own, though related, history, the Gilbert Islands chain straddling the equator is where people originally settled, and where the majority (90%) of the populatio

Dress Reform

Patricia A. Cunningham

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. The United States and Canada 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Throughout the nineteenth century and in the early decades of the twentieth century, the basic silhouette of women’s dress in the United States went through many changes. Many people accepted this ever-changing succession of fashions as a natural phenomenon, an inevitable outward expression of progress; fashion was a sign of modernity. The changing styles of dress and its silhouette were largely dependent on various undergarments—corsets, petticoats, crinolines, bustles, and other supporting devi

American Immigrants of West European Origin

Judy Zaccagnini Flynn

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. The United States and Canada 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The dress of North American immigrants from Western Europe is a reflection of the evolution of their sociocultural experience as they went from their homelands to the New World. Immigration has existed from the early times of settlement in North America to the present. Western Europe (defined in 1890 as Italy, Spain, France, Great Britain, Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Germany, Netherlands, Austria-Hungry, Switzerland, France, and Luxembourg) provided the largest number of immigrants to the United Sta

Conventional Work Dress

Colleen Gau

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Global Perspectives 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Historically, climate and work environments are primary to the selection and production of work clothing, but safety concerns, economic and business climates, fashion, and ethics find a place in the clothing narrative of Western civilizations. As crops and animals were domesticated, empires emerged in the Nile and Mediterranean regions, and the classification of skill groups became more distinct. Animal skins were replaced by woven garments by the time people had settled into communities. Herding

Quakers and Shakers

Beverly Gordon

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. The United States and Canada 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Anabaptists derive their name because the early practitioners of this branch of Protestantism sought to be rebaptized as adults although they had been baptized as children. There are four major Anabaptist groups: Hutterites, Mennonites, Brethren, and Amish, with subgroups within each category. Dress is an important means used by many Anabaptist groups to define their affiliation with a particular church, indicate their humility and willingness to submit to church discipline, and demonstrate their

Hungarian Subcultures during Socialism

Sándor Horváth

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The first phase of moral panic about hooliganism can be explored through visual depictions of jampecs (or spivs) in Hungary in the early 1950s. Jampecs were presented as setting a bad example to their peers by following capitalist values, expressed through dress obtained on the black market. Before World War II, the term jampec mainly referred to dandies from richer families. Hungarian officials and journalists used the example of jampecs to explain the dangers of Western popular culture. A new t

Dress and Religious Practices

Lynne Hume

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Global Perspectives 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Religious dress visually communicates to observers that the wearer believes in a certain set of religious principles and practices. The status distinctions that exist within any group are also visibly conveyed by dress, which sometimes articulates nuances in the power structure markedly. At the same time, a religious group’s ideology may emphasize simplicity and humility, with these aspects reflected in their choice of clothing.

Antifashion

Susan B. Kaiser and Ryan Looysen

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. The United States and Canada 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Antifashion has variously been used to describe everything from countercultural and subcultural styles to traditional or classic forms of dress. Its use has implied an assumption that it is possible to be outside of fashion, but a workable definition suggested by Elizabeth Wilson is “oppositional dress,” that is, dress that opposes mainstream fashion. An example of antifashion is the zoot suit, which, in the late 1930s and early 1940s, became a popular fashion for many African American jazz music

Fashion Variations

Susan Kaiser and Ryan Looysen

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Global Perspectives 2010

Encyclopedia entry

For the last fifty years or so, a central debate in fashion studies has centered around the influence of minority, subcultural, and street styles on high and mainstream fashion. Are these styles outside the realm of fashion? Or is fashion a process of complex negotiation that includes such styles, providing fashion variations for different groups? Among the names assigned to these styles are antifashion, oppositional style, and alternative style. However, these terms all require an opposite again

Tradition and Fashion

Elizabeth D. Lowe

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. The United States and Canada 2010

Encyclopedia entry

One might think that because Canada and the United States are countries that can be considered technologically advanced and would be characterized as thoroughly modern societies, the role of fashion in the lives of these countries’ residents would be strong and the place of tradition would be minimal. But to understand where and how tradition and fashion contrast, complement, and intersect in these modern Western societies, it is necessary to begin by exploring the meaning of these concepts.

The Dynamics of Fashion in West Europe

Bo Lönnqvist

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Fashion in Europe can be defined as a cultural phenomenon since about 1500. Sociological definitions of fashion have emphasized collective and individualistic processes, expressed in such notions as: leaders and adherents, court fashion, bourgeois fashion and social class, fashion restrictions, and mass fashion. All can be found in West Europe, where modern fashion originated. Social change, reflected in changing fashions, has been closely connected with cultural change. Sumptuary laws promulgate

Fashion and Jazz

Alphonso D. McClendon

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Global Perspectives 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Fashion and jazz are expressive forms of art and have significantly influenced one another in the first half of the twentieth century. The merger of alluring fashion and impassioned jazz configured mutually beneficial relationships, where aesthetics imparting identity and showmanship were put forth. Creative output, an aspiration of each discipline, was achieved through the exploration of textiles and construction in fashion, and the improvisation of melody and harmony in jazz. With American orig

Antifashion in East Asian Dress: Power of Uniforms

Brian J. McVeigh

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Fashion in East Asia reveals historical trajectories following the same path as Euro–American modernities. Modernization underpins the fashion-oriented consumerism visible today in Japan, China, Taiwan, and Hong Kong, accounting for the interplay between fashion, counter-fashion, and antifashion. Counter-fashion is concerned with an interest in change and avant-garde styles. It may be associated with dissent, protest, or ridicule. Antifashion (commonly confused with counter-fashion) means styles

Changes in Gender in Socialism

Katalin Medvedev

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus 2010

Encyclopedia entry

All ideologies strive to project a visual representation, and Socialism was no exception. Socialist subjects were expected to transform the world, and their ideological makeover included their appearance. Socialism sought to transcend class as well as gender differences and was geared toward suppressing individuality and propagating collectivism. The dress of a Socialist subject was intended to make a clear political statement and express loyalty to the Socialist regime. The regime focused on the

Gender

Susan O. Michelman and Kimberly Miller-Spillman

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. The United States and Canada 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Gender remains the basic distinction in dress, currently and historically, in American and Canadian society. Masculinity or femininity is reflected in the presentation of dress by the individual and is categorically interpreted by others according to societal norms. Gender is determined psychologically, socially, and culturally and refers to acceptable behavior and dress for males and females. Gender, and by extension dress, is a social and cultural construction. Viewing gender as a fluid concept

Polish Youth Fashion under Socialism

Anna Pelka

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus 2010

Encyclopedia entry

After World War II, the Polish United Workers’ Party came to power in Poland. For the Communist authorities, educating young people in the Marxist and Leninist spirit was of particular importance. A Communist teenager was obliged to strengthen the system and the state as well as engage in activism through youth organizations. Clothing was also an element revealing the teen’s position in society. The government-promoted school or union uniform played an educational and social role, and its standar

Identity and Gender in Traditional Jewish Dress

Eric K. Silverman

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. The United States and Canada 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Over the past few decades, North American Jews have increasingly contested and reshaped norms of Jewish gender and identity through ritual and everyday dress. Novel patterns on prayer shawls allow Jewish women to challenge long-standing male privilege during prayer and in the synagogue while nonetheless asserting a commitment to religious tradition and continuity. Skullcap or yarmulke designs increasingly draw on U.S. pop culture to uneasily balance Jewish religious particularity with cultural as

Biographies in Dress

Emma Tarlo

Source: Visibly Muslim. Fashion, Politics, Faith 4th Edition 2010

Book chapter

Rezia Wahid’s biography demonstrates the breadth and combination of ideological, sensual and visual resources on which she has drawn in the development of her personal aesthetic in dress and textile art. It is an aesthetic born chiefly out of the creative interplay of distant memories of Bangladesh and concrete experiences of Britain and Islam.

The Netherlands

José Teunissen

Translated by Michael Gibbs

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

In the seventeenth century the Netherlands played a prominent role in fashion, transforming Spanish Catholic court fashion into sober, monochrome clothing symbolizing Calvinist Dutch burgher culture. Around 1800 most Dutch people wore regional dress; a small elite followed urban Parisian fashions, but several years behind. The rising bourgeoisie in large cities already tended to break away from traditional clothing with obvious class distinctions, yet frugality was always regarded as a principal

Introduction to Cultural Groups

Phyllis G. Tortora

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. The United States and Canada 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Dress is a part of the material culture of the society in which it is worn. Material culture consists of the artifacts created and/or utilized in a society or community. Through the material culture of a society, it is possible to explore the nonmaterial culture: the values, ideas, attitudes, and assumptions present in that society. Elements of the material culture, such as dress, are often related to the nonmaterial culture of a society in complex ways. Some scholars who study dress consider it

Religion and Dress

Phyllis G. Tortora

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. The United States and Canada 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Organized religion, defined as an institutionalized set of beliefs about supernatural power or powers, has generally seen dress as a topic of concern. The degree to which dress is an essential element of worship and/or religious practice varies widely. Within a worldwide religion such as Catholicism or Islam, dress practices may be global or instead confined to a particular locality. In countries such as the United States and Canada, with populations that include immigrants from all over the worl

Types and Properties of Fashionable Dress

Phyllis G. Tortora

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. The United States and Canada 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Clothing worn by those who live in the United States and Canada may be classified in a similar way to dress of peoples in any part of the world. Types and elements of dress have been classified by Joanne Eicher and other dress scholars, for example, as body modifications or body supplements, which have such properties as color, volume and proportion, shape and structure, surface design, texture, odors and scents, sound, and taste. Not all of these elements were notable in North American dress. Fo

Introduction to Demographic and Social Influences

Phyllis G. Tortora

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. The United States and Canada 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Most Americans and Canadians select dress based on current fashion trends. Those selections are influenced by the place of the individual in a particular demographic and/or social group. Choices are influenced by messages about dress in films, television, music, sports, work, leisure activities, and religious practice. Demographics and membership in particular social groups are related to participation in fashion, but other aspects of the culture also play a role. One of the major sources of fash

The Concept of Modesty in Socialist Dress and Grooming

Olga Vainshtein

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The concept of modesty in Soviet fashion was part of the disciplinary code imposed by ideological regulations regarding one’s appearance. A unitary aesthetic originating in the ideology of collectivism codified social behavior, concepts of propriety, and thoroughly normative notions about beauty. The requirement of modesty implicated an attitude of general restraint and moderation in both body and dress: undecorated and functional clothes, dark colors, few accessories, reserved manners. The perfe

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