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Uniforms

Nigel Arch

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

A uniform may be defined as a prescribed set of clothing peculiar to a distinct group of individuals within a society. It is distinguished by displays of hierarchy evident on parts of the dress and will usually also display emblems that act as signals only readily interpreted by other members of the group. Hierarchy is expressed in terms of rank, and badges of rank have appeared on such elements of uniform dress as the shoulder strap and cuffs of the upper body garment. Other symbols act as remin

Cross-Dressing

Vern L. Bullough

Source: The Berg Companion to Fashion 2010

Encyclopedia entry

They adopt all the small vanities natural to the feminine sex to such an extent that they try to speak, walk, chatter, shriek and scold as women do, aping them as well in other aspects & . As soon as they arrive, they begin to behave exactly as women do, carrying on light gossip, as is the custom of a merry company of real women. (p. 209)

Body and Beauty

Patrizia Calefato

Translated by Sveva Scaramuzzi

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The concept of human “race” was extended for the first time from its meaning of “lineage” or “descent” by Georges Cuvier (1769–1823) who gave it a classificatory, hierarchical meaning. During the nineteenth century, this conception led to racial biology and eugenics. Notwithstanding the researchers’ intentions, the idea of “race” constituted the basis for nineteenth- and twentieth-century racist ideologies. The idea of feminine beauty also evolved in relation to the genesis of racism. Fashion bec

Lesbian and Gay Dress

Shaun Cole

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Although same-sex sexual activity has been occurring at least as long as the human race has been recording social activity, it was not until the late nineteenth century that terminology based on sexual identity replaced definitions and descriptions of sexual acts. Psychiatrists, sexologists, and human rights campaigners such as Richard von Krafft-Ebing, Karl Heinrich Ulrichs, and Karl Maria Kertbeny developed notions that same-sex attraction was related to identity and conceived terms such as urn

Cross-Dressing in Indonesia

Marianne Hulsbosch

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. South Asia and Southeast Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

In Indonesia cross-dressing is a complex phenomenon, distinct from cross-dressing in Western societies. In Indonesia it often forms part of rituals, festivities, and sociocultural roles; there are several gender types besides the commonly understood male–female division. The most recognized is waria, male individuals displaying characteristics normally considered female and thought to have a “woman’s soul”; they are often associated with popular entertainment. Waria see themselves as assuming fem

Gender

Gertrud Lehnert

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The basic distinction between female and male dress in the Western world is between women’s skirts and men’s bifurcated trousers. Only in the twentieth century was this abandoned—but in one direction, since, even today, men do not wear skirts, despite some attempts by fashion designers. This does not indicate that trousers are more natural for men, but that in the West, they denote supremacy and masculinity. From the late Middle Ages onwards, increasing emphasis was put on gender differentiation

Cross-Dressing in South Asia

Alka Pande

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. South Asia and Southeast Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Cross-dressing is the act of wearing clothing associated with another gender within a society, although a person who cross-dresses does not always identify as having a gender different from that assigned at birth. The androgyny of ancient Indian gods and goddesses implies the merging of the male and female principle. Brahma, the Hindu creator god, first created images of Prajapati, a male creator having a womb. He lacked the power to create women until Siva appeared before him in an androgynous f

Sworn Virgins

Antonia Young

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Sworn virgin is the term used for a woman whose traditional role is that of a man in the southern Balkans. This role of gender reversal results from various social situations, either where the lack of a man in the household necessitates a woman taking that place to head the family and retain ownership of the home, or alternatively it is a role enabling a woman to refuse marriage to a specific assigned man. The institution represents a support to patriarchy, ensuring that no household is without i

Subverting Gender, Gendering Subculture

Dunja Brill

Source: Goth Culture. Gender, Sexuality and Style 2008

Book chapter

Academic definitions of subculture have shifted considerably over the last four decades, with gender turning from a factor which used to be completely passed over into a central element of subcultural research. Likewise, since the feminist movement placed gender on the cultural and academic agenda in the 1970s, the meanings assigned to this concept and the ways it is applied to humanities research in particular have changed markedly.

African American Enslavement and Escaping in Disguise

Helen Bradley Foster

Source: Dress Sense. Emotional and Sensory Experiences of the Body and Clothes 2007

Book chapter

Instances wherein dress or its absence became the type of degrading torture inflicted by white “masters” included: additions to the body, such as brands, iron chains, mangles, and headgear; the forced wearing of clothes of the opposite sex; and the subtraction of clothing, particularly stripping the body before flogging. Of topical interest, the memories of punishments delivered during the period of enslavement form a basis which demonstrates that the more recent, early twenty-first-century insta

Embodying the Feminine: Male-to-Female Cross-Dressing

Jane E. Hegland and Nancy Nelson Hodges

Source: Dress Sense. Emotional and Sensory Experiences of the Body and Clothes 2007

Book chapter

Descriptions of early experiences with cross-dressing on all the sites revealed a deeply rooted connection to the experience of women’s dress and intense associations with dress of female relatives and role models. Such experiences range from being dressed as a girl by a female family member, to borrowing a female family member’s clothing covertly, such as underwear and hosiery, just to see what it would be like to wear these items of apparel. Many participants begin their personal page with an a

Introduction

Charlotte Suthrell

Source: Unzipping Gender. Sex, Cross-Dressing and Culture 2004

Book chapter

Starting research in the field cannot help but begin with some preconceived ideas and prepared research plans – they form the basis for the study. Quite often, these notions receive some challenge or disruption during the course of the research, and this was certainly true for me. Even in the early stages of fieldwork I found I had different sets of expectations with regard to each of the two groups with whom I did primary research. My initial intentions involved studying both groups roughly equa

Clothing Sex, Sexing Clothes: Transvestism, Material Culture and the Sex and Gender Debate

Charlotte Suthrell

Source: Unzipping Gender. Sex, Cross-Dressing and Culture 2004

Book chapter

After the birth of a baby the first question of interest seems almost always and inevitably to be with regard to its sex and it seems likely that this has been the first question not just for centuries but for millennia. Alison Shaw bears this out: ‘What have you got?’, the midwives persistently asked me, at the birth of my third child. Dazed and amazed, by having just delivered a healthy and very red-looking baby, it took me some minutes to work out why they kept asking me this question. I had n

Transvestites in the UK: The Dream of Fair Women

Charlotte Suthrell

Source: Unzipping Gender. Sex, Cross-Dressing and Culture 2004

Book chapter

As I began to write this section, the Sunday Times obligingly provided a most interesting cover to their ‘Style’ section; it showed a sultry looking man, with a fringe over his eyes, lipstick and a visible five o’clock shadow, wearing a lacy black top with a plunging front that reveals his modestly hairy chest. The accompanying banner footer reads, ‘Strewth! Will blokes be wearing blouses?’ (see Figure 1) The article inside, by Simon Mills, headed ‘Boys won’t be girls’ declared that many designer

Disorder within the Pattern – the Hijras of India

Charlotte Suthrell

Source: Unzipping Gender. Sex, Cross-Dressing and Culture 2004

Book chapter

When I began research in India, I discovered very quickly that interviewing hijras can be a tricky business. I had read as much as I could from the scant material available and discovered a number of notable details – and, not surprisingly, was thus quite unprepared for the interviews themselves. I chose to concentrate on Jaipur, the capital of Rajasthan in northwest India since it has the reputation of being one of the last places where hijras still have a ‘courtly’ status and personification –

Crossing Gender Boundaries in Cultural Context: Fieldwork Comparisons and Cultural Influences

Charlotte Suthrell

Source: Unzipping Gender. Sex, Cross-Dressing and Culture 2004

Book chapter

Although there is no ubiquitous costume for transvestites in Britain or in India, many factors render a different situation regarding clothes. In India options are fewer and there is less individual choice regarding clothing. Both UK transvestites and hijras wear what can loosely be designated as ‘women’s clothes’, but there are differences which mainly stem from their different position in each society. Hijras wear either a sari or salwar kameez and occasionally, a form of Rajasthani women’s dre

Dressing Up/Dressing Down: Reconsidering Sex and Gender Culture

Charlotte Suthrell

Source: Unzipping Gender. Sex, Cross-Dressing and Culture 2004

Book chapter

My interest in this was aroused because the words ‘soft’ and ‘softness’ cropped up so often in the questionnaires and in interviews that I realised they warranted some deeper exploration and thought. What I began to recognise was that the contrast between these two words shows up very clearly the conceptualisations which take place behind the words themselves and their accepted meanings. The UK transvestites make it very plain that for them, cross dressing is, to varying degrees, about expressing

Thinking of Themselves: Transvestism and Concepts of the Person

Charlotte Suthrell

Source: Unzipping Gender. Sex, Cross-Dressing and Culture 2004

Book chapter

Despite the large amount of material concerning the discourses of sex, gender and sexuality, transvestism is surprisingly under-researched. Perhaps because it usually provokes derision or embarrassment and has risible rather than serious associations with sexual perversion and deviance, it has been shied away from, even in academic circles. In particular, transvestism has rarely been considered cross-culturally – and some important and thought provoking questions have remained unasked. The studie

Them and Us, He or She?

Susan Vincent

Source: Dressing the Elite. Dressing the Elite Clothes in Early Modern England 2003

Book chapter

A powerful image of exclusion, and of a dangerous marginal lurking on the fringe of decent society, is represented in the figure of the vagabond or wandering rogue. Roaming beyond normal geographic and social boundaries, the rogue embodied the breakdown of good order. Undo the ties that bound family, household and commonweal, and the rogue emerged in dangerous isolation, potentially criminal, but in essence offending simply by existing. ‘Vagrancy is perhaps the classic crime of status, the social

‘The Epidemic of Purple, White and Green’: Fashion and the Suffragette Movement in Britain 1908–14

Wendy Parkins

Source: Fashioning the Body Politic. Dress, Gender, Citizenship 2002

Book chapter

The suffragettes were not the first to mobilize practices of display for political purposes. As Lisa Tickner (1988: 55–7, 62–3) has noted, the influence of labour tradition and earlier suffrage campaigns on suffragette practices such as banner making, street oratory and Hyde Park gatherings was clear. But symbolic forms of political practice comprised a tradition of radical protest at least as far back as the French Revolution (Hunt 1984: 52; see also Introduction) and it is to that period that o

Fairies and Queens: The Role of Effeminate Stereotypes

Shaun Cole

Source: ‘Don We Now Our Gay Apparel’. Gay Men’s Dress in the Twentieth Century 2000

Book chapter

Of course people now hear an awful lot about Quentin, and I’m not knocking him, I met him four or five times and like him as a person, but he had the assurance of the English middle-class background, you know, which counts for something, and did more so then. If you were a lad from south of the river or east of Aldgate pub you would never have had the nerve to do the things that Quentin did; and again, he had a well-worn beaten track from the Kings Road, Chelsea, which was always, well not always

You’re Born Naked and the Rest is Drag!

Shaun Cole

Source: ‘Don We Now Our Gay Apparel’. Gay Men’s Dress in the Twentieth Century 2000

Book chapter

Introduction

Antonia Young

Source: Women Who Become Men. Albanian Sworn Virgins 2000

Book chapter

The conditions and basic necessities on which the society was formed have maintained the social phenomenon of the ‘sworn virgin’: ‘It exists not as a fossil, but as an expression of the varied economic methods in this patriarchal society.’

Who are the ‘Sworn Virgins’?

Antonia Young

Source: Women Who Become Men. Albanian Sworn Virgins 2000

Book chapter

Because it is such a powerful force in the world today, the Western Judeo-Christian tradition is often accepted as the arbiter of ‘natural’ behavior of humans. If Europeans and their descendant nations of North America accept something as normal, then anything different is seen as abnormal. Such a view ignores the great diversity of human existence.

Living as Men

Antonia Young

Source: Women Who Become Men. Albanian Sworn Virgins 2000

Book chapter

This is the most extraordinary custom of mountain Albania: If a girl refuses to marry the bridegroom chosen by her parents, to whom she may have been betrothed before birth, she must shear her head and turn herself as far as possible into a male. Sexless as an anchorite, she is expected to take part in tribal wars. Masculine labor is demanded of her. In a blood feud, she takes the same part as her brothers, but if she has a lover, it is the man whom she ought to have married who must avenge her c

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