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Margaret Howell

Elizabeth Glendinning

Source: Fashion Photography Archive 2015

Designer Biography

Helmut Lang

Elizabeth Kutesko

Source: Fashion Photography Archive 2015

Designer Biography

Fetish

Frenchy Lunning

Source: Fashion Photography Archive 2015

Article

This article discusses the origins and history of fetish fashions (and gives an explanation of forms and functions) from the late nineteenth century to the early twenty-first century. Beginning with late nineteenth-century Paris, when these forms came into play, it tracks the development through modernist culture and into the postmodern culture of the late twentieth and early twenty-first centuries, noting the similar cultural conditions of gender instabilities and roles. It explains how fetish f

Fashion and the Time of Modern Femininity

Ilya Parkins

Source: Poiret, Dior and Schiaparelli. Fashion, Femininity and Modernity 2012

Book chapter

Peter Osborne asks, ‘What kind of time does modernity inscribe?’Osborne, The Politics of Time, p. 5. His book-length answer is foundational in a small but crucial body of literature about the temporal character of modernity. This literature establishes that the basic challenge of modern temporal consciousness is its reflexivity: modernity becomes the first era equipped to recognize itself as an era, and to distinguish itself from earlier eras—the past—while opening toward the future.In discussing

Paul Poiret: Classic and New in the Struggle for Designer Mastery

Ilya Parkins

Source: Poiret, Dior and Schiaparelli. Fashion, Femininity and Modernity 2012

Book chapter

In a meditation on the accumulation of symbolic capital in the fields of cultural production, Bourdieu, who views fashion as one among many such fields, explains that the production of time is central to the work of distinguishing the artists: ‘To “make one’s name” (faire date) means making one’s mark, achieving recognition (in both senses) of one’s difference from other producers; at the same time, it means creating a new position beyond the positions presently occupied, ahead of them, in the av

Austria

Irene Guenther

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Austria’s capital, Vienna, has been a political and cultural center, from which came a number of distinctive dress styles that influenced the rest of Europe. Among these are the dance dress for the waltz craze of the 1840s, as well as straw bonnets, which originated as peasant dress but were adopted as middle-class fashion, as was also the dirndl, which is the regional folk dress. As Austria was one of the great powers of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, Austrian dress has also been

The Novel and Dress

Clair Hughes

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The stories of Beatrix Potter would have no plots, someone remarked, if the animals had no clothes. This cannot be said of fictional characters in general, but all the same, authors do not usually send their characters naked into the world—dress can play a surprisingly important role in their narratives. The clothes described and illustrated by Potter anchor her animals to a workaday rural society. They bridge the gap between nineteenth-century reality and Potter’s version of it: a miniature worl

Fashion Designers

Peter McNeil

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Fashion designers are associated in the popular imagination with haute couture (high fashion) and famous individuals. Fashionable clothing requires a concept and also fabrication; sometimes this process is symbiotic, as in the work of many twentieth-century fashion designers. Fashion design can also be linked to aspects of the trades and seen as a vernacular activity with a much longer history. The development of the idea of the fashion designer requires an understanding of the history of making

Art and Dress

Peter McNeil

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Academic art and popular dress emerge from different structural and intellectual systems. Nonetheless, fashion in the early twenty-first century often appears to be like art and art to be like fashion. Artists are viewed as the ideal collaborators with fashion designers and the fashion industry, injecting the type of cultural capital they embody into products that have become synonymous with innovation and novelty. Artists throughout the twentieth century intervened in fashion culture, their anti

Fashion, Dress, and Interior Spaces

Peter McNeil

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Global Perspectives 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Clothes are animated by bodies moving in space, and attitudes toward work and leisure that have changed dramatically across culture and time. In early modern Europe until the eighteenth century, sumptuary laws extended well beyond dress to even the type of finish and materials used in interior design. Other societies, including China and Thailand, continuously attempted to control these appearances. In England in the post-Restoration decades, very wealthy women exhibited new independence in the d

Modernist Studio Jewelry, 1930–1960

Bella Neyman

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Global Perspectives 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Modernist jewelry in the United States between the years of about 1940 and 1960 featured pioneers Alexander Calder, Harry Bertoia, Art Smith, Margaret De Patta, Sam Kramer, and Peter Macchiarini. Celebratory art movements seem to arise after a period of political and social upheaval; sometimes they come about because of such events. In the period following World War II, the United States witnessed a creative rebirth. This desire to create resulted in an outpouring of creativity that touched all m

Music and Dress

Else Skjold

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Music and dress have played a significant role in the civilization process in West Europe. Both being aesthetic fields meant to be performed and put into play by human gesture, they have proved to be efficient tools for cultivating the movements, postures, and gestures of the body. The material, cut, and shape of dress have manipulated the body to move in certain ways, as have rhythms and expressions in music. Significant for West Europe has been a duality between spirit and body, causing a divis

Influence of the Arts

Jo Ann Stabb

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. The United States and Canada 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The relationship of art to dress in any part of the world and at any time is complex, as is the case in the United States and Canada. Both art and dress reflect and share not only aesthetic elements but also parallel cultural, social, philosophical, geographical, technological, political, gender, and religious influences of any particular era. This confluence, or zeitgeist, characterizes the spirit of the times and defines the prevailing style. Yet even while sharing the formal visual elements of

The Netherlands

José Teunissen

Translated by Michael Gibbs

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

In the seventeenth century the Netherlands played a prominent role in fashion, transforming Spanish Catholic court fashion into sober, monochrome clothing symbolizing Calvinist Dutch burgher culture. Around 1800 most Dutch people wore regional dress; a small elite followed urban Parisian fashions, but several years behind. The rising bourgeoisie in large cities already tended to break away from traditional clothing with obvious class distinctions, yet frugality was always regarded as a principal

Spain

Silvia Ventosa

Translated by Lucy Lawton

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The influence of Spanish dress on European fashions is concentrated in two periods: the period of court life of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries with the moda a la española (Spanish-style fashion), and that of the majos, members of the Madrid artistic scene at the end of the eighteenth century and during the nineteenth century. The stereotypical image of the Spanish was fixed around 1800, an image that emanated from the south, from Andalusia, and this stereotype still survives in the early

Costume for Dance

Helena Wulff

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The appearance of the tutu (a stiff, delicate ballet skirt made of tulle), together with pointe shoes (which enable ballerinas to dance on pointe, that is, on the tip of their toes) in 1832 in Paris marked the turning point for costumes used for different types of dance in West Europe. Dance costumes have been included in chronological accounts listing ballet and contemporary dance production credits and have also been studied as costumes and garments in their social and cultural contexts, often

When Is Fashion Design?

Ingrid Loschek

Source: When Clothes Become Fashion. Design and Innovation Systems 2009

Book chapter

An object is not a design object as such; it becomes one as a consequence of the pretension with which the object is used. This pretension is based on a social component. A functional object such as a car tyre may become design when adapted into a table, from which the question emerges: When is design? The car tyre is design when it is recognised and declared as such, and thus becomes socially relevant. With reference to the alienation of objects in design, for example a bucket painted in bright

Adoption and Consumption of Fashion

Yuniya Kawamura

Source: Fashion-ology. An Introduction to Fashion Studies 2005

Book chapter

The model of modern-day consumption originated in pre-revolutionary court life, especially that of Louis XIV of France (1638-1715) who was known as ‘the consumer king.’ He indulged himself in lavish and opulent clothing and ornamentation. Handmade carpets, upholstery and curtains were changed every season at Versailles. Louis XIV is remembered for his sumptuous style of life rather than the important military, religious, or political events during his reign. There was the closed world of courtly

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