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Jean-Charles de Castelbajac, Spring/Summer 1984

Veronica Maldonado

Source: Fashion Photography Archive 2015

Article

While most of de Castelbajac’s 1984 spring/summer contained serious and sensible clothes, the finale included a number of rectangular silk dresses screen-printed with images of household items such as US dollar bills, calculators, cigarette packs, and Warholian cans of Campbell’s soup. This was not the first time that de Castelbajac had shown these unconventionally shaped dresses—his previous collection had contained dresses emblazoned with internationally famous faces such as that of Charles de

Uniforms

Nigel Arch

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

A uniform may be defined as a prescribed set of clothing peculiar to a distinct group of individuals within a society. It is distinguished by displays of hierarchy evident on parts of the dress and will usually also display emblems that act as signals only readily interpreted by other members of the group. Hierarchy is expressed in terms of rank, and badges of rank have appeared on such elements of uniform dress as the shoulder strap and cuffs of the upper body garment. Other symbols act as remin

Croatia: Urban Dress, Twentieth to Twenty-First Centuries

Maja Arčabić

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Croatia entered the twentieth century split up into several territorial units within the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Dalmatia and Istria belonged to the Austrian part, while Civil Croatia and Slavonia, as well as the city of Rijeka, were under the control of Budapest. The continuity of Croatia as a political entity in its own right was maintained by the parliament, or Sabor, which convened in Zagreb, the capital of Croatia and Slavonia, but lacked any significant authority. The border between the tw

Ideology and Ethnic Dress in Croatia

Aida Brenko

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Ethnic dress has been used for ideological and political purposes in Croatia from the mid-nineteenth century up through the early twenty-first century. In the course of history, individual communities have adopted clothes and clothing styles to differentiate themselves from others. Thanks to its distinctive features, dress has acted as an obvious symbol of identity. Only with the appearance of fashion and the acceptance of global fashion tendencies by elite groups from the mid-sixteenth century o

Sweden

Ulla Brück

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Historically there are several indications of an urge to follow fashion in Sweden, although changes were slow. During the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries medieval and Renaissance traits still dominated. In the eighteenth century, two-piece dresses for women and breeches and jackets for men became more common. Sweden has numerous varieties of provincial folk dress. Some consider these to be historic items, with strong local identification, while others see them as inventions of nineteenth-cent

Greenland

Cunera Buijs

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The extremes of the Arctic climate set Greenland dress apart from dress in the rest of West Europe. It is made from the skins and furs of animals and birds and is highly adapted to the conditions and lifestyle of the Arctic people. Even so there are distinctive regional dress cultures of the West Greenlanders (Kilaamiut), Northwest Greenlanders (Inughuit), and East Greenlanders (Tunumiit). It was only in the twentieth century that the dress of Greenlanders began to be influenced by dress in the r

Norwegian Folk Dress in the United States

Carol Colburn

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Emigration from Norway to the United States lasted for approximately one hundred years, from 1825 to 1925. Norway’s terrain provided only three percent arable land; for Norwegian immigrants, the fertile plains in America’s Midwest were an attractive destination. Few packed distinctively Norwegian clothing, knowing that following local styles would indicate their intention to blend in. However, Norwegian dress echoed among the Norwegian American population through continued contact between Norway

Latvia: Urban Dress

Tatjana Cvetkova and Edīte Parute

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Latvia is located at the crossroads of international trade routes and has suffered many foreign invasions. Urban fashion shows evidence of various nations that have ruled Latvia, and links with other nations have engendered a unique mix of elements, along with sensitivity to European novelties. From early times, simple, functional dress was important. This has always been embellished by ornaments and accessories. Although national details have sometimes diluted modern tendencies, urban culture ha

Ethnic (Folk) Dress in West Europe

Helen Bradley Foster

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

European nations embrace common notions about folk dress as a symbol of cultural identity. The exception is England, a country not credited with a tradition of folk dress. Although the populations of many countries on other continents likewise recognize their own traditions of national dress, none uses the term folk to define that dress. The term and the manner in which its meaning changes over time and place help locate historical ideas about West European ethnic (folk) dress within temporal and

Why Does the United Kingdom Not Have National Dress?

Alison L. Goodrum

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The United Kingdom (UK) is multinational, comprising Wales, Scotland, England (with these three forming Great Britain), and Northern Ireland. This alliance is a product of various constitutional reforms and Acts of Union, carried out and revised over several centuries. These ongoing revisions help explain the lack of UK national dress as the expression of a stable, collective identity. The UK is effectively a collection of nations, with their own identities and recognizable national dress. The un

Independence to Present

Suzanne Gott

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Africa 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The achievement of independence in sub-Saharan Africa, beginning with Ghana in 1957, continuing up to the end of South African apartheid in the early 1990s, brought new appreciation for indigenous African styles and an elevation of certain ethnic ensembles to the status of national dress. During the late twentieth and early twenty-first centuries, transnationalism, globalization, and worsening economies have had a significant impact on African dress practices. Western-style dress, both new and se

Heads of State and Dress

Suzanne Gott

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Africa 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The modes of dress worn by African heads of state since independence have served as highly visible expressions of political philosophies and programs during different periods of national leadership. African leaders have also developed memorable trademark ensembles for projecting political personas.

The Australiana Phenomenon in Australia

Sally Gray

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The 1970s and 1980s saw a trend in Australian fashion design, consumption, fashion writing, and exhibitions toward the celebration of “Australianness,” including flora, fauna, urban vernacular themes, Aboriginal art motifs, and the idea of a national “personality” in dress. While this preoccupation was not unique to these decades, it was associated then with a wide range of clothing, leading designers like Jenny Kee and Linda Jackson, and key dates in Australian cultural history—including the Bic

Germany

Irene Guenther

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

German dress in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries was closely linked to French–German relations. Critics disapproved of affluent German women’s fondness for French styles. During the Napoleonic wars, German rural folk dress often featured prominently at national festivals, manifesting patriotism. Ironically, it was with the French occupation during this time that German fragmentation consolidated, bringing a sense of “Germanness.” Industrialization occurred rapidly in the German states. Afte

The Concept of National Dress in the Nordic Countries

Bjørn Sverre Hol Haugen

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

In parts of West Europe, folk dress traditions developed in preindustrial rural societies, replaced by newer styles centuries ago; elsewhere, folk dress was worn daily until almost the twenty-first century. Among the northern Sámi people, and in Greenland, the last traces of folk dress are still in daily use. The defining factor of folk dress is its local character, whereas national dress is not part of daily life in local societies. Where folk dress is still worn, it is by older generations, wit

Political Candidates and Dress

Susan B. Kaiser and Janet Hethorn

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. The United States and Canada 2010

Encyclopedia entry

In electoral politics, candidates face delicate balancing acts in matters of dress. They must represent (and therefore fit in with) the people they seek to serve; yet they also need to establish themselves as leaders who stand out/above. It helps to look good and dress well, but not to the extent that potential voters suspect the politician has little substance (and “only style”). Further considerations include the need not to appear too vain or self-absorbed. The ways in which political candidat

Croatia: Urban Dress, Seventeenth to Nineteenth Centuries

Andrea Klobučar

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Only a few urban centers had the status of free royal towns in seventeenth-century Croatia, which was predominately rural; fashion was for the rich. Cultural influences came via trade routes from Austria, Italy, and Germany. Fifteenth- and sixteenth-century traders from Dubrovnik had opened offices in England, wool fabrics from London being prized. Dubrovnik women, living between East and West, wore beautiful clothing from both. Eighteenth-century Croatian aristocrats imitated luxurious Parisian

Antifashion in East Asian Dress: Power of Uniforms

Brian J. McVeigh

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Fashion in East Asia reveals historical trajectories following the same path as Euro–American modernities. Modernization underpins the fashion-oriented consumerism visible today in Japan, China, Taiwan, and Hong Kong, accounting for the interplay between fashion, counter-fashion, and antifashion. Counter-fashion is concerned with an interest in change and avant-garde styles. It may be associated with dissent, protest, or ridicule. Antifashion (commonly confused with counter-fashion) means styles

Hungary: Urban Dress up to 1948

Katalin Medvedev

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Hungary remained feudalist until the second half of the nineteenth century, delaying the growth of Hungarian urban fashion. Hungary is perhaps best known for colorful ethnic styles, the most renowned being male gala dress (díszmagyar). However, the elite kept abreast of European trends. In the first half of the nineteenth century, Hungary, within the Hapsburg Empire, was predominantly agricultural; fashionable town dress was mostly German-inspired. Pest and Buda—separate cities until 1873—had dis

Sportswear in Australia

Andrea Mitchell, Christine Schmidt and Jinna Tay

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Australia prides itself on being a sporting nation, and sport is an integral part of the nation’s identity. Some say that it verges on being a religion, helping to build healthy Australian men, women, and young aspirants, and to spread the fame of Australians overseas. The combined effects of a temperate climate and rugged landscape have produced a national psyche that privileges the strong, outdoor-oriented, sports-loving body—yet a body clothed in sportswear for the most part similar to that wo

Bulgaria: Urban Dress

Mary Neuburger

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The story of Bulgarian urban dress begins with the slow but steady process of Bulgarian urbanization in the late eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. Bulgaria had been under Ottoman rule since the fourteenth century, a period during which urban centers in the regions that make up Bulgaria in the twenty-first century had a profoundly mixed population—primarily Turkish-speaking Muslims; Greek, Vlach (Romanian), and Armenian-speaking Christians; Roma and Sephardic- (Judeo-Spanish) speaking Jews. Sla

Wales

Elen Phillips

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Wales, one of the United Kingdom’s four constituent nations, is located on the western shores of the British Isles. Agriculture accounts for 80 percent of its land use. Sheep have always been the mainstay of the Welsh rural economy. The principal rural industry in Wales for centuries was woolen manufacture. Although the industry declined steadily for much of the nineteenth century, small woolen mills were once a common sight in the Welsh countryside. Welsh flannel made ideal clothing for everyday

Norway

Tone Rasch

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Is it possible to understand the way people dress by looking at their history and natural environment? A survey of Norwegians’ habits and attitudes related to clothing suggests that the answer is yes. The country is located on the periphery of the European continent. There are few inhabitants, and the combination of a long coastline and numerous mountain ranges has led to scattered settlements and great distances between them. Politically, Norway became independent in 1905 after being a part of t

Palestinian Scarves and Flag Dresses

Tineke Rooijakkers

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Central and Southwest Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The Palestinian scarf and the flag dress are powerful nationalistic and political icons. Their history is strongly connected to the disruptive occurrences of the twentieth century, such as the British Mandate period from 1922 to 1948, the foundation of the State of Israel in 1948, and the ensuing Arab-Israeli conflicts.

Algeria

Judith Scheele

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Africa 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Algeria, situated at the crossroads of several civilizations and large intercontinental trade routes, has participated in all the major cultural developments of the Mediterranean and the Middle East. Since the early twentieth century, its large emigrant community provides close links with both. Historically, Algeria can be divided into several large cultural areas, all distinguished by their vestimentary tradition: eastern Algeria, centered on the city of Constantine, close to Tunisia and its Mid

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