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France

Kimberly Chrisman-Campbell

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The French Revolution abolished the rigid dress etiquette and bureaucracy of the ancien régime fashion industry. Napoleon’s campaigns inspired fashions with soldierly details and created a vogue for exotic accessories. His imperial court ensured the survival of French luxury goods industries, while promoting a more modern silhouette. Napoleon encouraged pre-Revolutionary tastes for classical Greek and Roman styles, to glorify his own reign. The restoration of the Bourbon monarchy and the Romantic

Historical Dress in French Film

Jennie Cousins

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Films featuring recreations of historical dress have long been a staple of French cinema. Genres such as the war film, the historical film, and the colonial film all frequently feature costumes informed by the past, yet it is the costume drama that has come to be most readily associated with historical dress. Indeed, in this type of film, costume has become inseparable from drama. Despite falling in and out of favor with film critics, academics, and audiences alike, the costume drama has never be

Underwear

Grace Evans

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The fashionable silhouette has gone through bewildering changes during the last two hundred years, and these would not have been possible without the shapes created beneath. Underwear and outerwear progressed in tandem. Underwear designers responded to prevailing styles of fashionable dress, and fashion designers built and relied upon the capabilities of structural underpinnings as they developed. These changes were, in turn, influenced by key social, economic, and technological developments, whi

Fashion Designers

Peter McNeil

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Fashion designers are associated in the popular imagination with haute couture (high fashion) and famous individuals. Fashionable clothing requires a concept and also fabrication; sometimes this process is symbiotic, as in the work of many twentieth-century fashion designers. Fashion design can also be linked to aspects of the trades and seen as a vernacular activity with a much longer history. The development of the idea of the fashion designer requires an understanding of the history of making

New Look

Eric Pujalet-Plaà

Source: The Berg Companion to Fashion 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Dior, Christian*

Eric Pujalet-Plaà

Source: The Berg Companion to Fashion 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Jean Ozenne, who was designing for couture houses, introduced Dior to the fashion world and to his clientele. At the age of thirty, Dior devoted himself to studying fashion drawing, referring only to what he knew and appreciated of Edward Molyneux, Coco Chanel, Elsa Schiaparelli, and Jeanne Lanvin. He managed to sell his first sketches of hats and then of dresses. His clients were fashionable hat makers and couture houses but he “also sold ideas to foreign buyers.” Publication of his drawings in

Film

Patricia Campbell Warner

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. The United States and Canada 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Perhaps nothing in the twentieth century has influenced North American clothing more than film or, to use the more prosaic term, the movies. Many authors have written about the role of the designer throughout the past hundred years, claiming that the fashionable style and look comes essentially from that rarified source, but a close look at the history of the movies and their pervasive role in modern society suggests otherwise. From their beginning in the 1890s, films have fascinated, captivated,

From Hitler to Dior

Valerie Steele

Source: Paris Fashion. A Cultural History 2nd Edition 1998

Book chapter

There was no honorable way of publishing a magazine under the Germans; there was no way without compromise and collaboration. I stalled and formed slippery answers for the Germans…. The problem was to work without selling out. We all helped each other break enemy regulations. Finally I found a way of publishing fashion albums without saying please to the Germans. It was all very complicated. It jumped borders and involved quite a lot of risk—but it was exciting. Our secret staff, artists, engrave

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