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Jewelry of Indo-Pakistan and Bangladesh

Usha Bala

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. South Asia and Southeast Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The vibrant tradition of Indian jewelry spans five thousand continuous years. Ancient Indians wore jewels of natural materials like shells and tusks, thought to have magical properties. Precious metals were coveted. Gold was regarded as a symbol of the sun; chandi, the term for silver, came from the Sanskrit chandra, meaning moon. Metals were regularly melted. Remarkably well-preserved gold and silver items excavated at Taxila, in modern-day Pakistan, constitute the largest cache of jewelry survi

Twenty-First-Century Qatari Abayeh Fashions

Christina Lindholm

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Central and Southwest Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Women in Qatar, like many other conservative Muslim Middle Eastern countries, dress in a black robe, the abayeh, and long headscarf, the shaylah. They are adhering to the Qur’anic directive to dress modestly and interpret this as wearing all-covering robes and concealing their hair. There is little agreement on why the women “cover.” Some scholars state that it provides privacy and protection from the eyes of male strangers. Others believe that by wearing plain, anonymous robes, women protect men

Social Class and Clothing

Katalin Medvedev

Source: The Berg Companion to Fashion 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Social class is a system of multilayered hierarchy among people. Historically, social stratification emerged as the consequence of surplus production. This surplus created the basis for economic inequality, and in turn prompted a ceaseless striving for upward mobility among people in the lower strata of society.

Turkmen Dress and Embroidery

Gillian Vogelsang-Eastwood

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Central and Southwest Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The majority of the Turkmen live around the Kara Kum (“Black Sand”) desert. The various Turkmen tribes consider themselves to be a single ethnic group. In the early twenty-first century, the Turkmen region is divided among Afghanistan, Iran, and the former Soviet Union. Turkmen of these countries have only been separated by international boundaries for some one hundred years. Prior to this, there was constant trade and social contact between the various groups. Turkmen also engaged in textile tra

The Cavaliers and the Parvenus as Imitators of the Court

Werner Sombart

Source: Classic and Modern Writings on Fashion 2nd Edition 2009

Book chapter

Nothing has contributed more towards perverting our ideas of probity, candour, and disinterestedness, or turning those virtues into ridicule; nothing has more strengthened that fatal propensity to luxury, which is natural to all men, but which is become with us a second nature, by that peculiarity of temper, which makes us fasten eagerly upon everything that can gratify our passions; and nothing in particular has so greatly degraded the French nobility as the rapid and dazzling fortunes of contra

Fashion in the Gilded Age: A Profile of Newport’s King Family

Rebecca J. Kelly

Source: Twentieth-Century American Fashion 2008

Book chapter

Editors’ Introduction: By the turn of the twentieth century Americans had seen tremendous growth through industrialization. While this progress aided the development of a substantial middle class, there were still large numbers of European immigrants toiling to achieve the American dream. Great poverty existed in urban areas. Yet immigrants participated in fashion when they could; it was a means to ‘become’ American. Fashion in dress was still very much influenced by Paris, so much so that wealth

Fashion Change in the New Millennium: An Introduction

Annette Lynch and Mitchell D. Strauss

Source: Changing Fashion. A Critical Introduction to Trend Analysis and Meaning 2007

Book chapter

Raised as a Roman Catholic, Madonna adopted the Hebrew name Esther … Madonna’s interest in Kabbalah has been covered intensely by the media. She gained a surge in sales of Kabbalah red string bracelets, a red string or stone-studded bracelet used to ward of evil. She reportedly refused to work on Friday night and Saturday, the Jewish Sabbath. Awareness of the Kabbalah Center has grown considerably.

Marriage and Dowry Customs of the Rabari of Kutch: Evolving Traditions

Eiluned Edwards

Source: Wedding Dress Across Cultures 2003

Book chapter

The Rabari are Hindu pastoralists who inhabit the desert region of Kutch district in the extreme west of Gujarat, where India borders Pakistan. There are three main subgroups of Rabari in the district: Kachhis in the central and western area, Dhebarias in the east and south-east, and Vagadias in the east and north-east. Their dress is distinguished by the signature use of black wool by the women and white cotton by the men. Much of it is decorated with elaborate hand embroidery (Figure 5.1). Raba

Leadership Arts in State Societies

Judith Perani and Norma H. Wolff

Source: Cloth, Dress and Art Patronage in Africa 1999

Book chapter

In both Muslim and non-Muslim West African states, secular and spiritual power interface in the personage of the king. Often, secular power is strengthened by spiritual power. In the indigenous non-Muslim West African kingdoms of Asante, Yoruba, Benin and Fon the office of divine ruler was spiritually sanctioned, and leadership regalia was imbued with sacred power. Among the Fon in the Republic of Benin, special symbols associated with the reigns of different kings had a sacred dimension. Fon div

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