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Ethical Fashion and Ecofashion

Sandy Black

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Global Perspectives 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Although the fashion industry is fast-moving and often dismissed as frivolous, it represents one of the major global economic players. Fashion is one of the few remaining craft-based industries, relying on skilled manual labour for manufacturing across its wide spectrum of levels, which raises particular issues for production. There is an urgent need to reconcile ethical, environmental, social, and personal agendas through future product development and manufacturing cycles in the fashion industr

Textile Manufacture in Taiwan

Yu Cheng-Ping and Wu Chi-Jen

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Before the Qing dynasty (1644–1911) ceded Taiwan to Japan in 1895, Taiwan’s economy was based on agriculture. Its environment was not suitable for planting cotton or raising sheep. Other than domestic, self-sufficient textile production, there was no textile industry. The demand for textiles relied on imports from the mainland. This changed radically beginning in 1896 with the Japanese colonization of Taiwan. Taiwan’s textile industry can be divided into five periods: (1) Japanese colonial period

Textile and Apparel Industries at the Turn of the Millennium

Kitty G. Dickerson

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. The United States and Canada 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Behind the runway shows and other glitz and glamour of the fashion industry are the textile and apparel firms that churn out the garments and other textile products for U.S. consumers. These are companies that have to deal with serious realities of profit and survival in an intensely competitive environment. Just as fashions are transformed over the years with hemlines that rise and fall and silhouettes that change, the industries and companies that produce the fashions have been completely trans

Jews in the Melbourne Garment Trade

Anna Epstein

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands 2010

Encyclopedia entry

For a large part of the twentieth century the garment trade was an important industry in the southern Australian state of Victoria. Since clothing was a big part of the country’s manufacturing, the Jews of the garment trade made a large contribution to Australia’s economy. This multifaceted industry had its own economic and social history, gorgeous products, and camaraderie and color at its heart, Flinders Lane. It gave rise to the individualism, flair, entrepreneurial spirit, and sheer fun that

Ecological Issues in Dress

Jana M. Hawley

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. The United States and Canada 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Ecological concerns relating to dress arise at various points in the processes used to manufacture textiles and apparel and also as a result of the use of those products. These concerns are similar in both the United States and Canada, and the solutions to these problems are much the same in both countries.

Finland

Bo Lönnqvist

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Early nineteenth-century Finnish fashion was influenced by Stockholm, capital of Finland and Sweden since the thirteenth century. In the 1790s the Finnish upper classes wore styles influenced by rococo and neoclassicism, known as Gustavian after Gustavus III of Sweden. After the war of 1808–1809 Finland was separated from Sweden and annexed to the Russian Empire as a grand duchy until Finnish independence in 1917. A new bourgeois class developed. Male dress lost its extravagance, symbolizing bure

Denmark

Marie Riegels Melchior

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

In terms of dress and fashion, Denmark is an example of a peripheral West European country within the international fashion system. Since the Middle Ages, new fashions have found their way to Denmark through the internationally oriented royal family, the purchases of well-traveled citizens, various international and national fashion reports, and international purchases by local retailers. With varying speed, new cuts, colors, and styles have impressed themselves upon both the everyday and festive

Cotton

Giorgio Riello

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Although archaeological evidence shows cotton was known in Europe during the Roman Empire, it was only after 1100 that this fiber was used by Europeans. Even then, Europeans did not produce cloth entirely made of cotton due to the scarcity of the raw material in the continent. By the time of the so-called little ice age of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, cotton had ceased to be grown even in temperate climates like that of southern Italy. Small quantities of Indian textiles probably reac

The Textile Industry

Michiel Scheffer

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The textile industry covers the sequence of production stages, starting from fibers through clothing assembly. Europe’s textile industry has been significant in both economic and cultural history. It was the first sector to industrialize and was therefore at the core of the pervasive economic and social changes that took place in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. For more than a century, the advantages of large-scale cloth production made West Europe a world leader in this trade, but since

Fur

Lise Skov

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Fur comes from animal pelts that are chemically treated to make the leather supple and retain the hairs, which consist of guard hairs and underwool. Although furs come from many different animals, the most common in the twenty-first century are mink and fox. Fur has been appreciated for two outstanding qualities: warmth, essential in cold climates, and appearance, which accounts for its association with ostentation and prestige dressing. Comfort and durability have also made fur garments and acce

Accessories of Dress

Celia Stall-Meadows

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. The United States and Canada 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The accessories industries in Canada and the United States are multibillion dollar industries that include many diverse product categories. Fashion accessories may be defined as fashion items that are carried or worn, and support or accent apparel fashions. Common accessories used by consumers in North America include hats and headwear, eyewear, scarves, shawls, neckties, handkerchiefs, pocket squares, gloves, belts, handbags, small personal leather goods, luggage, umbrellas, fans, and watches. M

Retailing, Clothing, and Textiles Production in Australia

Sally Weller

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Although the Australian textiles and clothing manufacturing industries have been contracting steadily since the early 1970s, the range of activities involved in bringing clothing and related products to the market remain a major component of the national economy and an important source of employment, especially in urban areas. The people engaged in bringing clothing and clothing-related textiles to Australia’s consumer markets work in a variety of industries including retailing, importing, wholes

Used Clothing

Mélissa Gauthier

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Latin America and the Caribbean 2005

Encyclopedia entry

Although not new, the global circulation of secondhand clothing from the West to the Third World has expanded rapidly over the past two decades. The United States is the world’s largest exporter of used clothing, American exports having grown significantly since the late twentieth century. Different countries subject imported American secondhand clothing to various trade policies, from liberalization to protectionist. A recent review by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (

London: Economic Differentiation and Policy-making

Prodromos Panayiotopoulos (aka Mike Pany) and Marja Dreef

Source: Unravelling the Rag Trade. Immigrant Entrepreneurship in Seven World Cities 2002

Book chapter

The high level of immigrant participation in the London garment industry contains important elements of continuity. Huguenot exiles in the seventeenth century, Eastern European Jewish refugees in the late nineteenth century, and Cypriot and Bengali immigrants in the late twentieth century all found shelter in the trade (see Bermant 1975; Fishman 1976; Kershen 1990; Panayiotopoulos 1990; Schmiechen 1984; Steward and Hunter 1964). Jews fleeing persecution in the 1880s and 1890s worked as pressers a

Amsterdam: Stitched up

Raes Stephan, Jan Rath, Marja Dreef, Adem Kumcu, Flavia Reil and Aslan Zorlu

Source: Unravelling the Rag Trade. Immigrant Entrepreneurship in Seven World Cities 2002

Book chapter

In the Netherlands, as in other industrialized countries, immigrants have played a significant role in the development of the garment industry. In Amsterdam, the industrial production of garments was stimulated in the nineteenth century by the arrival of Roman Catholic immigrants from Westphalia and Jewish immigrants from Eastern European countries. They laid the basis for a flourishing Dutch garment industry that reached its a peak in the early 1960s. As in other industrialized countries, garmen

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