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Adam Ant

José Blanco F.

Source: Fashion Photography Archive 2015

Article

In the early 1980s, pop musicians embraced historicism in their performance attire. Adam and the Ants, a new wave band based in London, donned clothing inspired by historic military outfits, nineteenth-century dandies, and pirates. They were among the recognized leaders of the New Romantics movement, a London youth subculture known for its taste for eccentric fashion. The band was formed in 1977 and achieved fame with a streak of successful albums, particularly Kings of the Wild Frontier (1980) a

Lolita

Kathryn A. Hardy Bernal

Source: Fashion Photography Archive 2015

Article

The Lolita fashion-based subculture, once an underground Japanese movement, is a burgeoning worldwide industry. The style, represented by women who dress in childlike clothing, emerged on the streets in the 1970s, gaining impetus within the J-rock (Japanese rock) music scene of the 1990s. The visual kei band Malice Mizer formulated their look on New Romantic glam, inspired by 1980s collaborations between Vivienne Westwood and Malcolm McLaren; fans of the guitarist, Mana, began to mimic his unique

Stephen Sprouse

Elizabeth Kutesko

Source: Fashion Photography Archive 2015

Designer Biography

AllSaints

Sandra J. Ley

Source: Fashion Photography Archive 2015

Designer Biography

Street Style: A Brief History

Brent Luvaas

Source: Fashion Photography Archive 2015

Article

Over the last couple of decades, the meaning of the term “street style,” both within and outside of the fashion industry, has shifted profoundly from a description of the urban subcultural styles that emerged out of “the street” to those ordinary—but still stylish—forms of dress worn by “real people” in their everyday lives, to, finally, just another genre of fashion photography that captures the looks of fashion insiders outside runway shows. This article provides a brief history of the concept

Greasers

Else Skjold

Source: Fashion Photography Archive 2015

Article

“Greasers” were devotees of a subcultural style originally for young, working-class men (later also women) that emerged in the 1950s in the United States. The word “grease” refers to the wax or pomade used to make the characteristic hairdo of the look, which also typically included biker boots, jeans, T-shirts, and leather jackets. Groupings of greasers would often appear in motorcycle gangs around the emerging rock ’n’ roll scene, and parts of the subculture formed the motorcycle club “Hell’s An

Punk

Monica Sklar

Source: Fashion Photography Archive 2015

Article

Punk is one of the most influential and highly visible of modern subcultures around the globe. While maintaining its original cachet with subcultural wearers, the aesthetic is also seen on high-fashion runways, in mainstream mall stores, and in every ideation imaginable on the street. Many elements of punk dress, such as combat boots, studded belts, and vibrantly dyed hair, have become iconic in popular culture, yet symbolism and meanings have changed over time. Today’s punk dress is primarily ro

Understanding Subcultural Studies: Dick Hebdige Revisited

Yuniya Kawamura

Source: Fashioning Japanese Subcultures 2012

Book chapter

What is a subculture? How is it different from a culture? These are difficult questions to answer because sometimes the terms are used interchangeably. Some groups definitely constitute a subculture, but why can’t we call those groups a culture?

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The Deprofessionalization of Fashion

Yuniya Kawamura

Source: Fashioning Japanese Subcultures 2012

Book chapter

Before the street fashion phenomenon that started in the mid-1990s, fashion trends were mostly dictated by the major fashion magazines. But this is no longer the case, and the magazines no longer dictate styles to consumers. With street fashion came a new type of fashion magazine. A number of Japanese street fashion magazines, such as Tune, Mini, CUTiE, Jille, Fudge, and Egg, were published one after the other. Instead of having professional fashion models pose in famous designers’ clothes, the s

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Book chapter

Joseph Nye, an American scholar at Harvard University, coined the term “soft power” (Nye 2004). He defined soft power as the ability of a nation to achieve its objectives by attracting or seducing other nations to do its bidding or emulate its policies without resorting to coercion (which is “hard power”), since gains and victories achieved by military force and economic sanctions are often short-lived and provoke a backlash (1990, 2004). Hard power does not produce any positive outcomes. Nye mai

Placing Tokyo on the Fashion Map: From Catwalk to Street Style

Yuniya Kawamura

Source: Fashioning Japanese Subcultures 2012

Book chapter

After a long period of isolation from foreign and neighboring countries, Japan opened its doors and moved toward Westernization during the Meiji era (1868–1912). This was a period of radical economic, social, and political reforms. The emperor supported and encouraged the modernization and military buildup of Japan. The government’s new slogan was “Civilization and Enlightenment,” following Western patterns. The most visible transformation was seen in clothes. This new cultural phenomenon, a shif

Japanese Youth in a Changing Society

Yuniya Kawamura

Source: Fashioning Japanese Subcultures 2012

Book chapter

Japan in the 1980s was a seemingly invincible economic superpower. Parents of today’s teens are in their forties and fifties, and experienced the country’s unprecedented economic growth and success of the 1980s. Both corporations and individual consumers were wealthy, and major Japanese corporations had the ambition to conquer the world. In 1986 Mitsui and Company, a Japanese conglomerate, bought the Exxon Building, part of the Rockefeller Center in New York City (Scardino 1986). In 1989 Mitsubis

Shibuya: The Youth in Outspoken Rebellion

Yuniya Kawamura

Source: Fashioning Japanese Subcultures 2012

Book chapter

Subcultures in Shibuya cannot be explained without mentioning a landmark known as Shibuya 109, which is a major shopping center with eight upper-level floors and two basement floors. It has been operated by Tokyu Malls Development (TMD) since 1979. The stores in the building until 1995 sold conventional women’s wear, but in 1996 the entire building changed its customer target to the younger market. As of June 2011 there were 116 tenants/stores in the building, all of which target young girls and

Harajuku: The Youth in Silent Rebellion

Yuniya Kawamura

Source: Fashioning Japanese Subcultures 2012

Book chapter

Jingu Bridge is sometimes called Harajuku Bridge because it is next to Harajuku station. When I began my fieldwork in Tokyo in 2004, the place was full of Japanese teens dressed in different costumes. Some were dressed in very feminine dress with lots of lace trimmings and frills around the skirt hem and the edge of the sleeves; a style known as the Lolita look. Harajuku is a mecca for the Lolita subculture, just as Shibuya is a mecca for Gyaru and Gyaru-o. Lolita style can be seen as a counter-r

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Akihabara and Ikebukuro: Playing with Costume as Entertainment

Yuniya Kawamura

Source: Fashioning Japanese Subcultures 2012

Book chapter

After the start of radio broadcasting and the invention of television, Akihabara became, in the early 1950s, Japan’s largest electronics district; it was the place to purchase electronics. As consumption increased among the Japanese population, so did the popularity of Akihabara in Japan and even overseas. Foreigners and tourists visited Akihabara to purchase Japanese electronics, such as refrigerators, ovens, Walkmans, rice cookers, and DVD players, at reasonable prices.

Shinjuku: Girls of the Nightlife Using Beauty and Youth as Weapons

Yuniya Kawamura

Source: Fashioning Japanese Subcultures 2012

Book chapter

A magazine called Nuts targets Gyaru in Shibuya, and in October 2005 it published a special edition called Koakuma and Nuts: Volume 1, which was so popular that the publisher decided to increase its circulation after just three days. In April 2006 Koakuma and Nuts: Volume 2 was published. In June 2006 the special edition was renamed Koakuma Ageha, and since October 2006 the magazine has been published monthly. The word Nuts was deleted from the title because it carried an image of tanning and imp

Book chapter

Mori means forest in Japanese, so Mori Girl is a type of girl found in the forest. A friend said to Choco-san, a typical Japanese girl, “you look like a girl who belongs to a forest.” Then Choco-san decided to create a community site on August 24, 2006, on Mixi, one of the most popular social networking services in Japan.While membership to Mixi requires an invitation from a current member of a community, once you become a Mixi member, you can freely create your own community. On Facebook, there

Hebdige explained in his study of punk subculture (1979: 23): “Amongst kids, this desire for coherence is particularly acute. Subculture provides a way of handling the experience of ambiguity and contradictions, the painful questions of identity.” Likewise, Japanese youth who belong to subcultures carry a great deal of insecurities, dilemmas, and contradictions, which are reflections of the society’s uncertain future. An interplay of ideological, economic, and cultural factors bear on subcultures

Conclusion: The Future of Japanese Subcultures

Yuniya Kawamura

Source: Fashioning Japanese Subcultures 2012

Book chapter

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Introduction

Yuniya Kawamura

Source: Fashioning Japanese Subcultures 2012

Book part

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Geographically and Stylistically Defined Japanese Subcultures

Yuniya Kawamura

Source: Fashioning Japanese Subcultures 2012

Book part

The Power of the Youth: Trickle-Up/Bubble-Up Theory Revisited

Yuniya Kawamura

Source: Fashioning Japanese Subcultures 2012

Book part

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Introduction to Subcultural Body Style

Therèsa M. Winge

Source: Body Style 2012

Book chapter

After World War II, subcultures surfaced with prominence in urban spaces within Western culture (Thompson 1998). Scholars speculate that these subcultures formed because of shared issues and common needs that set them apart from mainstream culture and society (Cohen 1955). Over time, the term “subculture” gained negative connotations for four primary reasons. First, the very term “subculture” has a prefix of “sub,” which suggests something lower or below. Second, subculture members often come fro

Subcultural Body Style History

Therèsa M. Winge

Source: Body Style 2012

Book chapter

From the time we are born, the human body is modified for physical, spiritual, psychological, social, and cultural transformations. In fact, prehistoric mummies found in recent years suggest that body practices, modifications, associated supplements, and rituals were significant in the earliest of human cultures (Winge 2003). In 1991 a frozen Stone Age male mummy was found in the Ötztal Alps. Nicknamed Ötzi, this mummy shows evidence of possibly the earliest body modifications ever discovered. Re

Subcultural Body Style and Identity

Therèsa M. Winge

Source: Body Style 2012

Book chapter

Each subculture member has individual lived body experiences, which collectively create the generalizations about the subculture’s identity. These generalizations are then further extended to collective ideas about identity regarding the individual member, the specific subculture, and the entirety of all subcultures to some degree. The subcultural body becomes an amalgam of experiences—for example, piercings, tattoos, spiky hair, and propensity toward pain. Furthermore, each subculture has unwrit

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