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Marithé + François Girbaud (house)

Sandra J. Ley

Source: Fashion Photography Archive 2015

Designer Biography

Regional Differences in Dress and Fashion

Nancy O. Bryant

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. The United States and Canada 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Fashion professionals believe that there are regional differences in dress and fashion trends in the United States and Canada. However, objective data are hard to find, as scholars have paid little attention to regional differences within these territories. National retail firms are likely to evaluate sales in different regions in order to provide a range of stock that will appeal to their customers. Trade publications report the sales volume of items in various regions. Fashion reporters use the

Sweden

Ulla Brück

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Historically there are several indications of an urge to follow fashion in Sweden, although changes were slow. During the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries medieval and Renaissance traits still dominated. In the eighteenth century, two-piece dresses for women and breeches and jackets for men became more common. Sweden has numerous varieties of provincial folk dress. Some consider these to be historic items, with strong local identification, while others see them as inventions of nineteenth-cent

Swimwear, Surfwear, and the Bronzed Body in Australia

Jennifer Craik

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands 2010

Encyclopedia entry

For many people, Australia is synonymous with the dream of sun, surf, and sand. Australia is perceived as a land of leisure and lounging around—preferably by the water. In order to do this, Australians dress in a casual way in swimsuits, surfwear, or leisure wear such as tank tops (sleeveless, low-necked tops) or T-shirts, shorts, and thongs (rubber sandals). Sunhats are, of course, obligatory in the Australian climate if skin cancer is to be avoided. Accordingly, popular representations of this

Blazer

Tom Greatrex

Source: The Berg Companion to Fashion 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The familiar navy blazer traces its origins back to the captain of the frigate HMS Blazer, who had short double-breasted jackets cut in navy blue serge for his scruffy-looking crew when Queen Victoria visited his ship in 1837. The crew’s “blazers” with their shining brass Royal Navy buttons impressed the Queen and soon became part of their dress uniform.

Urban Menswear in Australia

Vicki Karaminas

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Australia was relatively sparsely populated with Europeans until the discovery of gold in 1851. Immigration, together with increased urbanization and industrialization, led to growing prosperity for its colonies. A new class of professional city men, civil servants and entrepreneurs, emerged. While the governing class had always looked to Britain for their styles of fashionable dress, men abandoned the diversity of everyday town dress in the early colonies and began to conform to European standar

Sports and Dress

Ingun Grimstad Klepp

Translated by Stig Erik Sørheim

Kjetil Enstad

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

In Europe, interest in sports and outdoor life emerged in the nineteenth century. The bourgeoisie went to the countryside to experience nature. Time spent in contact with nature was viewed as a source of inner peace and spiritual development, while awareness of the importance of physical activity for beauty and health grew. With the introduction of regulated working hours and official holidays at the beginning of the twentieth century, the working classes began to have vacation and spare time, to

Gender

Gertrud Lehnert

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The basic distinction between female and male dress in the Western world is between women’s skirts and men’s bifurcated trousers. Only in the twentieth century was this abandoned—but in one direction, since, even today, men do not wear skirts, despite some attempts by fashion designers. This does not indicate that trousers are more natural for men, but that in the West, they denote supremacy and masculinity. From the late Middle Ages onwards, increasing emphasis was put on gender differentiation

Finland

Bo Lönnqvist

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Early nineteenth-century Finnish fashion was influenced by Stockholm, capital of Finland and Sweden since the thirteenth century. In the 1790s the Finnish upper classes wore styles influenced by rococo and neoclassicism, known as Gustavian after Gustavus III of Sweden. After the war of 1808–1809 Finland was separated from Sweden and annexed to the Russian Empire as a grand duchy until Finnish independence in 1917. A new bourgeois class developed. Male dress lost its extravagance, symbolizing bure

Denmark

Marie Riegels Melchior

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

In terms of dress and fashion, Denmark is an example of a peripheral West European country within the international fashion system. Since the Middle Ages, new fashions have found their way to Denmark through the internationally oriented royal family, the purchases of well-traveled citizens, various international and national fashion reports, and international purchases by local retailers. With varying speed, new cuts, colors, and styles have impressed themselves upon both the everyday and festive

Leisure

Jean L. Parsons

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. The United States and Canada 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Sportswear, casual wear, business casual, and casual Friday all suggest variations on leisure dress intended for a relaxed or less formal approach to dressing. The concept of dressing for leisure that emerged at the end of the nineteenth century and continued throughout the twentieth was different from that of earlier periods. Leisure dressing occurred across gender and class lines and involved a steady erosion of occasion-specific dressing. Women borrowed traditionally male attire for sport and

The Netherlands

José Teunissen

Translated by Michael Gibbs

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

In the seventeenth century the Netherlands played a prominent role in fashion, transforming Spanish Catholic court fashion into sober, monochrome clothing symbolizing Calvinist Dutch burgher culture. Around 1800 most Dutch people wore regional dress; a small elite followed urban Parisian fashions, but several years behind. The rising bourgeoisie in large cities already tended to break away from traditional clothing with obvious class distinctions, yet frugality was always regarded as a principal

Children’s Clothes

Viveka Berggren Torell

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The notion that children represent the future has influenced children’s dress for a long time. During the Enlightenment, childhood started to be seen as an important, separate period in a person’s life that ought to be devoted to a playful existence. At that time, philosophers advocated clothes allowing free movement of the body, to make it possible for children to develop according to their “inner path” and thereby become sensible adults. These ideas later reverberated in the twentieth century,

Jeans

Phyllis G. Tortora

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. The United States and Canada 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The evolution of blue jeans from ordinary working dress into an international fashion classic began in California shortly after the start of the Gold Rush of 1849. Levi Strauss was a Bavarian immigrant seeking to expand the New York–based family-run dry goods business. Strauss arrived in San Francisco in 1853 and established a wholesale fabric supply house. One of his customers was Jacob Davis, a tailor who made blue denim work pants for miners and other laborers. Responding to complaints about p

Introduction to Demographic and Social Influences

Phyllis G. Tortora

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. The United States and Canada 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Most Americans and Canadians select dress based on current fashion trends. Those selections are influenced by the place of the individual in a particular demographic and/or social group. Choices are influenced by messages about dress in films, television, music, sports, work, leisure activities, and religious practice. Demographics and membership in particular social groups are related to participation in fashion, but other aspects of the culture also play a role. One of the major sources of fash

Footwear in Australia

Lindie Ward

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Warm to hot summers, and preferences for the outdoor life, sport, and leisure have created a unique environment for the evolution of specific footwear made and used in Australia. Early Aborigines in the south Kimberley region wore shoes of felted emu feathers, yet going barefoot has been common at times for all Australians, although less so today. There was significant early demand for shoes for convicts and free settlers, which local tradespeople could not meet. As more affluent settlers arrived

Dressing for Success: The Re-Suiting of Corporate America in the 1970s

Patricia A. Cunningham

Source: Twentieth-Century American Fashion 2008

Book chapter

During the twentieth century until just after the Second World War menswear included formal traditional suits (single or double-breasted, the former usually worn with a vest), and casual dress for a variety of informal activities and school. Casual dressing for non-work occasions had increased during the pre-war years especially during the 1930s, when casual trousers worn with sweaters, tweed jackets and blazers became the prescribed look for many (Craik 1994: 190–5). Despite an increased desire

The Americanization of Fashion: Sportswear, the Movies and the 1930s

Patricia Campbell Warner

Source: Twentieth-Century American Fashion 2008

Book chapter

Editors’ Introduction: The 1929 stock market crash brought an end to the roaring twenties. The short skirts of the boyish flapper gave way to a new silhouette – dresses with longer skirts and body-hugging slim shapes – that mimicked New York’s newest skyscrapers, the Chrysler Building and the Empire State Building. Madeleine Vionnet’s bias cut and Elsa Schiaparelli’s slim silhouette, hard-edged styles dominated 1930s fashion. Yet, the ‘Made in Paris’ label no longer had a stranglehold on American

Fashioning Sports Clothing as Lifestyle Couture

Jennifer Craik

Source: Uniforms Exposed. From Conformity to Transgression 2005

Book chapter

This chapter explores how sports clothing has shifted from specialist apparel to enhance sporting performance to become a mainstay of stylistic trends in fashion and the basis of contemporary everyday dress. Sports clothing is not only the dominant form of clothing and footwear manufacture and marketing but also an increasingly important segment of designer fashion. So-called sports couture has taken the functionality out of sports clothing and transformed it into hyper chic.

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