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Body and Beauty

Patrizia Calefato

Translated by Sveva Scaramuzzi

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. West Europe 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The concept of human “race” was extended for the first time from its meaning of “lineage” or “descent” by Georges Cuvier (1769–1823) who gave it a classificatory, hierarchical meaning. During the nineteenth century, this conception led to racial biology and eugenics. Notwithstanding the researchers’ intentions, the idea of “race” constituted the basis for nineteenth- and twentieth-century racist ideologies. The idea of feminine beauty also evolved in relation to the genesis of racism. Fashion bec

Virtual Worlds, Dress, and Fashion

Sarah Barbara Watstein and Kelly Czarnecki

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Global Perspectives 2010

Encyclopedia entry

A new category of Internet sites has appeared during the last decade—virtual worlds or immersive environments—with fashion playing an important role. In these environments, visitors, also called residents, have established thriving communities interacting on various levels as “avatars,” originally a Hindu word, here used to describe the embodiment of the user within the environment. Modifying one’s look as an avatar is popular among teens and adults. Second Life has the largest following of any v

Virtual Sensation: Dress Online

Suzanne Loker and Susan P. Ashdown

Source: Dress Sense. Emotional and Sensory Experiences of the Body and Clothes 2007

Book chapter

Computer technology creates many visualizations of dress and the body never before available. Commercial websites offer a location for advertising clothing and other products to consumers (B2C) and businesses (B2B) so that location becomes irrelevant. These commercial sites primarily take the form of regular online retail or wholesale stores where products can be shown as static images. Technology exists for even more elaborate images, showing models swishing down virtual runways (see www.optitex

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