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Balkan Outlaws and Bandits

William Bartlett

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Medieval Balkan societies were predominantly rural. Gradually conquered by the Ottoman Turks from the mid-fourteenth to the mid-sixteenth centuries, they were increasingly taxed during Ottoman rule in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Tax exemptions were gradually rescinded, leading to the growth of banditry. The bandits, known as gusars, hajduks, klephtes, or uskoks, were often men unable or unwilling to pay increased taxes, who had been expelled from their land or had escaped from serfd

The Turban and Male Headgear

Beverly Chico

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Central and Southwest Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The turban is a widely used headdress created by winding a piece of cloth, such as linen, cotton, or silk, around the head and sometimes over a cap. Turbans vary greatly in shape, size, folds, and color; the fabric used differs in its length and width. Assigned numerous meanings, turbans have represented religious symbolism, political power, social status, and fashion consciousness. They can also fulfill practical functions, such as providing protection against natural elements like heat, cold, w

Silk Clothing as an Economic Factor, Safavid Persia

Margaret A. Deppe

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Central and Southwest Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Surviving articles of dress in Persia from the Safavid Empire (1502–1736) illustrate the extensive network of production and distribution of raw silk and silk goods throughout Asia and Europe in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. The economic role of silk textiles for garments and accessories was substantial. Already an important industry before Safavid times, production of silk increased under Shah Abbas I. Magnificent garments, carpets, and other textiles were produced for palace use and

The Influences of Ottoman Culture

June Hill

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus 2010

Encyclopedia entry

From its initial base east of the Bosphorus in the early 1300s, Ottoman rule gradually extended across East Europe, replacing the Byzantine Empire as the region’s major power. In 1676, the Ottoman Empire stretched from Crete and Anatolia to Dalmatia, Poland, and the Ukraine. It was to be 250 years before the empire reverted to its founding state, culminating in the establishment of the Republic of Turkey in 1923. At the height of its empire, Ottoman products such as embroidery were fashionable in

Romania: Urban Dress, Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries

Angela Jianu

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Romania in the early twenty-first century encompasses two territorial and political entities that were known as the Romanian (or Danubian) Principalities of Wallachia and Moldavia before their unification in 1859 and their transformation into the Kingdom of Romania in 1866. Although the Romanian principalities retained their administration for some time under Ottoman influence, which began in the fourteenth century, in the seventeenth century the Ottoman authorities appointed their own rulers, an

The Kaftan and Its Origins

Charlotte Jirousek

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Central and Southwest Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The term kaftan usually refers to a long, unfitted coat of Turkic, Persian, or Central Asian origin. Many variations on front-opening coats originated with Central Asian horse-riding nomads. These nomads were both Uro-Altaic and Indo-European in origin. The coats were worn in layers over loose trousers that protected the legs from chafing. Layered garments were also useful in a very changeable climate. The earliest examples of the wearing of kaftan-like coats are to be found in graves of early no

Jewish Dress in Central and Southwest Asia and the Diaspora

Esther Juhasz

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Central and Southwest Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Jewish dress has been shaped by the Jewish code of law, halacha, and various types of contacts with other religions and cultures. The halacha deals in detail with the desired conduct of a Jew in everyday life, including explicit rulings and recommended attitudes on dress. No specific dress was ever mandated by Jewish law, and as a result no universal Jewish dress evolved. Some common principles are recognizable in a variety of styles of Jewish dress. In some places Jews played an active role in t

Turkish Embroidery

Sumru Belger Krody

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Central and Southwest Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Embroidery and embroidered textiles offer a unique window into urban society in the Ottoman Empire. The history of the urban embroidery tradition from the sixteenth century on parallels that of the Ottoman Empire with its changing geography, economy, and social life. Embroidery was one of the art forms practiced both commercially and domestically by a large portion of the population in the empire. Both men and women embroidered textiles that were to be used personally or sold. Gender was the dete

The Tradition of the Bridal Trousseau

Sumru Belger Krody

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Central and Southwest Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

In Central and Southwest Asia, particularly in societies where older traditions are still strongly held, textiles took a prominent place among the gifts that the newly married couple would receive from family and friends. A young bride’s trousseau contained textiles produced for the wedding, such as decorations, hangings, canopies, and dowry-carrying cloths, textiles produced as gifts, and textiles to be used by the couple after the wedding, such as garments for the bride and her husband and text

Serbia: Urban Dress, 1830 to 1941

Mirjana Menković

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus 2010

Encyclopedia entry

At the beginning of the nineteenth century, many Serbs, especially in the towns, adopted Oriental, more precisely Levantine, types of dress. The Turkish authorities, in their desire to impose their culture as a universal model throughout the Ottoman Empire, did not object to their non-Muslim subjects’ adoption of their cultural patterns, including their style of dress. This was one way to achieve a unified general model within Ottoman society, a society that was widely diversified in terms of the

Ottoman Dress

Nancy Micklewright

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Central and Southwest Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The Ottomans were a world power in the Mediterranean for several centuries, with their empire extending at its height from Tabriz in the east around the Arabian Peninsula, the Levant, Egypt, and across North Africa to Algiers. In Europe, they controlled much of Hungary, the Balkans, and Greece. Although it took nearly two hundred years to assemble this vast empire, their role as a world power was assured with their conquest of Constantinople in 1453. From that point until the defeat of the Ottoma

Bulgaria: Urban Dress

Mary Neuburger

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The story of Bulgarian urban dress begins with the slow but steady process of Bulgarian urbanization in the late eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. Bulgaria had been under Ottoman rule since the fourteenth century, a period during which urban centers in the regions that make up Bulgaria in the twenty-first century had a profoundly mixed population—primarily Turkish-speaking Muslims; Greek, Vlach (Romanian), and Armenian-speaking Christians; Roma and Sephardic- (Judeo-Spanish) speaking Jews. Sla

Veils and the Hajj

Elisha P. Renne

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Global Perspectives 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Veils have historically been associated with women’s performance of hajj (the pilgrimage to Mecca) in Saudi Arabia, as documented in the travel narratives of attending pilgrims. While pilgrimage to Mecca prior to the mid-twentieth century entailed extended, sometimes lifelong, travel over land and by sea, airplanes have allowed many more Muslim men and women from around the world to perform hajj since the 1950s.This increase has exposed Muslim women to many different styles of veils worn in count

Hijab Fashions in Northern Nigeria

Elisha P. Renne

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Global Perspectives 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Cypriot Dress

Euphrosyne Rizopoulou-Egoumenidou

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Cyprus is an island in the eastern Mediterranean, on the threshold between the Orient and the Occident. Different rulers from east and west have left their mark on the local culture and dress. European influence was prevalent during the period of the Lusignan (1191–1489) and Venetian (1489–1570) rule and remained traceable through the Ottoman rule (1571–1878). Out of this period, during which Oriental influence was strong, emerged the traditional Cypriot dress of modern times. The island entered

Sources of Information about Dress in Southwest Asia

Tineke Rooijakkers

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Central and Southwest Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Information on dress in Southwest Asia (also referred to as the Middle East or the Near East) is derived from both primary evidence, such as actual textiles and garments or tools for textile production, and secondary evidence, which includes textual and pictographic sources. Textual sources incorporate not only written references to dress in prose or poetry but also laws, trade accounts, inventories, wedding contracts, travelogues, and so on. Depictions of dress can be found in paintings, frescoe

Introduction to the History of Dress in the Arabian Desert and Peninsula

Tineke Rooijakkers

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Central and Southwest Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The Arabian Peninsula is a subcontinent shaped by its climate, containing a central plateau (the Nejd), occasionally marshy coastal plains along the Persian Gulf, and mountain ranges along the Red Sea coast. It is mostly known for its great deserts, the Nafud, the Dhana, and the Rub’ al-Khal. There is very little surface water, and less than one percent of the region is suitable for agriculture. These factors have shaped the way of life of the Arabs. There are some towns and cities located near s

Turkish Costume Albums

Jennifer M. Scarce

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Central and Southwest Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The expansion of the Ottoman Turkish Empire—from modest beginnings in Anatolia during the thirteenth century to control over territories spanning the Balkans, the east coast of the Mediterranean and Egypt, much of North Africa, Iraq, and Arabia by the late sixteenth to early seventeenth centuries—provoked much concern and curiosity among the European states who encountered its power. From the late fifteenth century on, Europeans visited the capital, Istanbul, and the rest of the Ottoman world in

Royal Dress Preserved at the Topkapi Museum

Hülya Tezcan

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Central and Southwest Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

The Topkapi Palace is home to an opulent collection of 1,550 garments of historical Ottoman apparel. The existence of this collection arises from a palace tradition whereby when a sultan or (male) member of the immediate court died, his clothes were removed for safekeeping and placed in protective wrappers. The collection begins with kaftans belonging to Fatih Sultan Mehmed (Mehmed the Conqueror, 1451–1481), and it ends with garments owned by the last sultan, Mehmet Reşad in the early twentieth c

History of Dress and Fashion

Willem Vogelsang

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Central and Southwest Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

People have been living in Central and Southwest Asia for many thousands of years. Some groups developed complex social communities based on farming, cooperation, and international trade; other groups relied on hunting and following animals to support their way of life. Throughout the vast area that stretches from the eastern Mediterranean to the deserts of Central Asia, many civilizations have grown, flourished, and then vanished. Some have left many traces, while others are known just from a ha

Face Veils

Gillian Vogelsang-Eastwood

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. Central and Southwest Asia 2010

Encyclopedia entry

A face veil is a separate garment that is used to cover all or part of the face, usually that of a woman. Ethnic and cultural origins often play a prominent role in whether a woman wears a face veil, and what type. Some groups have insisted on women being veiled because their presence is a sexual distraction to men. Veiling is also used to indicate the physical status of a female, that is, to show if she is in the fertile phase of her life. In patriarchal societies, veiling is sometimes linked to

Greece

Linda Welters

Source: Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion. East Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus 2010

Encyclopedia entry

Greece is a comparatively small country, yet it commands an important position in the history of dress. Situated at the crossroads of Asia and Europe, with Egypt on the opposite shore across the Mediterranean Sea, Greece has experienced many political and cultural upheavals that have influenced the manner in which its inhabitants dressed. Likewise, the attire of the ancient Greeks has affected the clothing choices of other cultures, past and present.

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